AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA) (issn: 00845841) is a peer reviewed journal first published online after indexing scopus in 1982. AMA is published by Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp and Shin-Norinsha Co. AMA publishes every subjects of general engineering and agricultural engineering.
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (ISSN: 00845841) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers Agricultural and Biological Sciences and all sort of engineering topic. the journal's scopes are in the following fields but not limited to:Azerbaijan Medical Journal Gongcheng Kexue Yu Jishu/Advanced Engineering Science Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery Interventional Pulmonology
Grain corn production is a relatively new sector in Malaysia. In this sector, a mobile dryer is utilized to reduce grain moisture content from approximately 25% to 14%. This study was undertaken to compare the drying performance between medium-sized (3 tonnes) and large-sized (7 tonnes) mobile dryers that are typically employed by local grain corn producers. In specific, this study examined the effect of drying time on fuel consumption and moisture reduction at three different drying temperatures; 60, 70 and 80°C, utilizing these dryers. The medium-sized mobile dryer consumed 43.6, 30.3 and 24.1 L/t of fuel to dry the grain at temperatures of 60, 70 and 80°C, respectively. The large-sized mobile dryer consumed 36.6, 34.9 and 31.7 L/t of fuel at drying temperatures of 60, 70 and 80°C, respectively. At the specified drying temperatures, the large-sized mobile dryer took 13.1, 11 and 9.1 hr to dry the grain. In addition, the results shows that the optimal drying temperature for both dryers was 80°C. The large-sized mobile dryer utilized 24% more fuel than the medium-sized mobile dryer to dry one tonne of grain. In terms of drying time, the large-sized mobile dryer required 55% longer time to finish each batch of grain drying than the medium-sized mobile dryer. It may be deduced that the medium-sized mobile dryer is more cost effective than the large-sized mobile dryer for in-field grain drying.
Ozone has gained traction due to its short half-life and non-toxic residues on treated food. However, retaining food nutritional qualities remain the major contributing factor determining the appropriateness of ozone treatment. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of ozone treatment on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of cold- pressed pomegranate juice. Additionally, the correlation between different content of juice (with and without filtration process) and ozone treatment time (from 0 to 30 minutes) was also determined. From the results, it was observed that total color difference (TCD) and pH had significant effects (p < 0.05) from the ozone treatment alone. In comparison, total phenolic (TPC) and ascorbic acid content showed synergistic effects on juice composition and ozone treatment. Only 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity showed a negative impact for both factors, which indicates that the scavenging activity in pomegranate juice was not affected by the content of juice and ozone treatment time. TPC and ascorbic acid content in filtered juice degraded significantly more (p < 0.05) than in unfiltered juice, which might be due to the presence of solids in the unfiltered juice eliciting a defense mechanism towards ozone teatment. In conclusion, unfiltered juice showed better quality characteristics than filtered juice because of its higher preserved qualitative value post-ozone treatment.
Pesticide residue in leafy vegetables like a cabbage can cause harmful effects to consumers. Thus, early detection and classification of pesticide residue could help consumers to choose residue-free cabbages. This research was performed to evaluate the performance of different classification methods to classify spectral data collected from 60 pesticide-free cabbage samples. Deltamethrin pesticide was sprayed on the samples at different dilution concentrations namely pesticide-free (PF), pesticide-low (PL), pesticide-medium (PM) and pesticide-high (PH). The spectral data of the cabbages was recorded using a spectrometer with an effective wavelength in the range of 400 to 1000 nm. The concentration of the pesticide residues in each cabbage sample was quantified using a gas chromatography with an electron detector (GC-ECD). Three classification methods investigated in this study were artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR). The results show that LR, SVM and ANN yielded excellent classification accuracies of 95, 88 and 87%, respectively. This study revealed that the spectroscopic measurement coupled with classification methods are promising technique for detecting and classifying pesticides residues in cabbage samples.
The essential oil from Citrus hystrix leaves is used commercially in Malaysia as a flavor and aroma agent, perfumery, and medical preparations. The main objective for this study was to determine the optimum parameters of ultrasonic pre-treatment; amplitude, particle size of leaves and pre-treatment time prior to the Soxhlet extraction for Citrus hystrix essential oil via Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Fresh Citrus hystrix leaves were dried, blended and sieved to different particle sizes before undergoing ultrasonic pre-treatment and Soxhlet extraction procedure. The ultrasonic pre-treatment was carried out at amplitude ranging from 30% to 70%, particle sizes of 100 μm to 1000 μm, and pre- treatment time of 5 min to 30 min. Soxhlet extraction was conducted for 8 hours with a solid to liquid ratio of 1:20, at the reaction temperature of 68°C using hexane. Results show that the ultrasonic amplitude of 45%, pre-treatment time of 20 minutes, and particle sizes of 200 µm were found to be optimal extraction parameters in achieving maximum oil yield after Soxhlet extraction procedure (6.98 %). Treated leaves yielded 6.54 % of oil extract which was higher than untreated leaves (5.70 %). The functional groups related to the essential oil and powder of Citrus hystrix were limonene, aldehydes, and ester as determined by the Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images reveals that oil glands of treated leaves powder of Citrus hystrix ruptured and cell wall degradation rather than untreated samples. Therefore, ultrasonic pre-treatment could be proposed as a promising pre-treatment method combining with the Soxhlet extraction to improve the essential oil yield of Citrus hystrix.
Coconut plantation has the potential to contribute for biomass energy from its waste such as coconut husks and shells. This research aimed to determine the calorific value of coconut shells and husks at different maturity stages and its relationship with moisture content as the first step in determining their acceptability as alternative fuel sources. A bomb calorimetry procedure was performed to measure gross calorific values (GCV) which was used to indicate the potential of the samples to produce biofuels. It was found that the coconut shell had the highest calorific value of 22.36MJ/kg at maturity stage 4 (eleven to twelve months of age) followed by inner husk at 18.96MJ/kg and outer husk at 17.65MJ/kg. The relationship between the average GCV and maturity stages of the whole samples yielded the regression of R2=0.971. This result shows that the average GCV increased as the maturity stages increased. While the mean calorific value obtained from the shells was 16.38MJ/kg which was comparable to certain wood species. The coconut shells, which are generally not fully utilized, abandoned, and discarded, have the potential to be used as energy sources, whilst the husks have a lesser calorific value but could be used as fuel for less energy intensive uses.