AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA) (issn: 00845841) is a peer reviewed journal first published online after indexing scopus in 1982. AMA is published by Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp and Shin-Norinsha Co. AMA publishes every subjects of general engineering and agricultural engineering.
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (ISSN: 00845841) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers Agricultural and Biological Sciences and all sort of engineering topic. the journal's scopes are in the following fields but not limited to:Azerbaijan Medical Journal Gongcheng Kexue Yu Jishu/Advanced Engineering Science Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery Interventional Pulmonology
A scale for measuring the attitude of the farmers towards rice cultivation was developed using Likert’s method of summated rating. Initially, 60 statements were framed and edited as suggested by Edwards. The edited 44 statements were subjected to relevancy test. The relevant statements were subjected to the procedure as suggested by Likert. Finally, t-values of the individual items were calculated. Only those items having t-values more than 1.75 were included in the final scale. Thus the final attitude scale consisted of 24 statements of which 14 positive 10 negative statements. The scale was found to be highly reliable with the reliable coefficient of 0.82.
The IDM practices have ability to increase growth parameters, yield and soluble protein and total phenol content and on the other hand decreases disease severity of late blight of potato. The highest plant height was found in T9 (Soil application of FYM + Poultry manure + Tuber treatment with T. harzianum+ three foliar spray with Equation Pro) treated plant representing the value 6.15 and 34.05 cm during 2016-17 and 6.30 and 34.65 cm during 2017-18 at 15 and 45 days age of seedling. Similarly, total yield as 417.30 and 449.40 gm per plant was also obtained from T9 (Soil application of FYM + Poultry manure + Tuber treatment with T. harzianum + three foliar spray with Equation Pro) treated plant, against 218.78 gm and 211.68 gm in case of control in year 2016-17 and 2017-18 respectively. The minimum disease severity of late blight of potato as 1.65 and 5.28% during 2016-17 and 1.70% and 5.35% during 2017-18 were recorded in T9 (Soil application of FYM + Poultry manure + Tuber treatment with T. harzianum + three foliar spray with Equation Pro) treated plant as against 30.12% and 48.84% (2016-17) and 30.50 and 49.05 % in case control at 45 and 60 days, respectively. Biochemical analysis of treated plants was also observed due to adaptation of IDM practices that soluble protein content in potato leaves due to IDM approaches ranges from 16.55-23.75 mg/g of fresh leaves with maximum in T9 treated potato leaves, indicating 34.02, 35.32, 36.54 and 37.97 mg/g of fresh leaves at 2, 4, 6 and 8 days of pathogen inoculation during 2016-17. Similar trend of observation has also been found during 2017-18. Similarly, the total phenol content as compared to control at 2, 4, 6 and 8 days of pathogen inoculation was also found in T9 (Soil application of FYM + Poultry Manure + Tuber treatment with T. harzianum + three foliar spray with Equation Pro) treated potato leaves posses increased percent of total soluble phenol as 81.91 % over control at 8 days of pathogen inoculation. Similarly, during 2017-18, the maximum total phenol content was also found in T9 treated potato leaves which were 2.69 mg/g, 3.21 mg/g, 3.31 mg/g and 3.40 mg/g of fresh leaves at 2, 4, 6 and 8 days of pathogen inoculation.
Carrots are prone to impact damage during the root-stem separation stage, and it is easy to cause fruit damage due to the impact between the pull rod and the carrot. To reduce the damage of carrots harvested by pulling, the finite element method was used to study the critical velocity of carrot damage after the improvement of the pull rod (a rubber cushioning material with a thickness of 2mm, and inner diameter of 16mm, giving a 20 mm outside diameter, and elastic modulus of 100 MPa was wrapped outside the pull rod). The critical rotational speed of the disc driving the pull rods was solved by kinematic analysis of the pulling separation mechanism and impact velocity analysis of carrots. According to the nonuniform motion characteristics of the pull rod, a noncircular gear transmission device was designed, and a root-stem separation experiment was carried out. Because rubber cushioning material affected the success rate of separation and active disc rotational speed affected the damage rate of separation, the experimental factors were pull rod surface with or without rubber cushioning material and active disc rotational speed. Through the separation experiment, it was found that when the rubber cushioning material was used in the pull rod, and the conveyor belt velocity was 1 m•s-1 and the input rotational speed of the disc driving the pull rods was 180 rpm, the separation success rate of carrot was 90% and the damage rate was 5%.
The use of beneficial soil microorganisms as agricultural inputs for enhanced crop production necessitates selection of rhizosphere-competent microorganisms with plant growth-promoting (PGP) characteristics. Three strains of Rhizobium (LR-35-01, LA-17 and LB-11) and two strains of PGPRs (KB-133 and LK-791) were characterized for various PGP traits. The seed inoculation effect of these strains, either alone or in consortia was examined on growth, nodulation and yield of lentil (Lens culinaris M.) in a field experiment for two year during Rabi season of 2019-20 and 2021-22 at Norman E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, India. The treatments: T1 (uninoculated control), T2 (RDF; 20 kg/ha N:40 kg/ha P2O5:20 kg/ha K2O), T3 (20 kg/ha N), T4 (40 kg/ha P2O5), T5 (KB-133), T6 (LK-791), T7 (LB-11), T8 (LA-17), T9 (LR-35-01), T10 (KB-133+LB-11), T11 (KB-133+LA-17), T12 (KB-133+LR-35-01), T13 (LK-791+LB-11), T14 (LK-791+LA-17), and T15 (LK-791+LR-35-01) were laid out in Randomized Block Design in three replications. All the strains of Rhizobium and PGPRs were found to positive for IAA and siderophore production. IAA production due to different strains ranged between 35.81 to 78.18 µg IAA ml-1 under in-vitro condition, maximum being with LA-17 strain (78.18 µg ml-1). KB-133 and LB-11 strains were strong and moderate HCN producer, respectively. All the strains solubilized the phosphorus in cultural conditions. All Rhizobium strains solubilized zinc. The results showed that different consortia inoculation of Rhizobium and PGPRs were better than their mono inoculants by producing greater plant height, plant dry weight, nodule number per plant, grain yield and straw yield. Consortia inoculants of PGPR (KB-133)+Rhizobium (LA-17) was found superior to other’s by producing maximum plant height at harvest (44.90 cm), root length at 60 DAS (9.90 cm), plant dry weight at 60 DAS (0.46 g plant-1) and at harvest (3.97 g plant-1), nodule number per plant (14.03) at 45 DAS and (18.00) at 60 DAS, nodule dry weight per plant (13.33 mg), grain yield (1420.47 kg ha-1) and straw yield (2277.03 kg ha-1). Results suggested that consortia inoculants of Rhizobium with PGPRs having various PGP traits would be an effective approach for improving yield of lentil and soil health.
Rice straw is a byproduct of rice cultivation, of which a considerable amount is burnt in India and other countries, causing environmental pollution and climate change by releasing greenhouse gases such as CO2, N2O, CH4, NOX, and CO into the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to recycle this huge amount of agricultural biomass by degrading it through microbial inoculants The present study consists of four treatments, rice straw (S), rice straw + water (SW), rice straw + water + Pusa decomposer (SF), and rice straw + water + TNAU biomineralizer (SB). Results of this study showed the accelerated decomposition process in microbial treated rice straw compared to rice straw + water (SW) and untreated rice straw (S). The distorted, rough, and porous surface structure of SEM micrograph in treatments SF and SB confirmed the ability of both the microbial consortia to decompose rice straw faster than in rice straw + water (SW) and untreated rice straw (S). EDAX spectra of elemental composition reported the carbon content in order of 33.66%, 29.75%, 13.33%, and 20.65% w/w of rice straw in S, SW, SF, and SB treatments respectively. The highest nitrogen content (0.64%) w/w of rice straw was reported in SF treatment and was followed by SB (0.61%) w/w, SW (0.45%) w/w, and S (0.43%) w/w of rice straw. Treatment SF and SB registered lower C/N ratios of 20.83 and 33.85 respectively compared to SW (66.11) and S (78.28) treatments.