AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA) (issn: 00845841) is a peer reviewed journal first published online after indexing scopus in 1982. AMA is published by Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp and Shin-Norinsha Co. AMA publishes every subjects of general engineering and agricultural engineering.
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (ISSN: 00845841) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers Agricultural and Biological Sciences and all sort of engineering topic. the journal's scopes are in the following fields but not limited to:Azerbaijan Medical Journal Gongcheng Kexue Yu Jishu/Advanced Engineering Science Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
Oil palm is a tree without branches but with many wide leaves at its top. It has become the world’s number one plantation crop because of its unparalleled productivity. One of the important and cumbersome activities in palm fruit cultivation is harvesting. Harvesting of oil palm is difficult due to its thorns like cut stems. Harvesting is being carried out manually by using sickle and pole arrangement. But the process is cumbersome and needs lot of effort. To reduce the difficulty of harvesting and to achieve good productivity of the crop an optimum machine has to be developed. Much research was done in this sector, but still the industry is in the need of an optimum machine. Hydraulic lifting platforms, motorized (cantas) cutters, pneumatically operated cutters, were developed but these have their own setbacks. Recently, focus was drawn towards the robotics. Here, this paper explains all the available and developing technologies in the area of harvesting of oil palm.
Based on the self-developed stress self-feedback pressure relief device, a visual pressure relief test of the fluid filling lining was carried out to quantitatively study the support effect under the action of three spring stiffness coefficients, three loading areas and four particle sizes of fluid sand. The study found that the fluid filling lining support process can be divided into two stages: fluid compression section and fluid discharge section. In the fluid compression section, the initial load reduction rate was up to 78%. When the lining pressure exceeded the threshold value of the relief valve, it entered the fluid discharge section. The relief valve automatically released the surrounding rock energy by releasing the fluid and the load reduction rate was up to 47%. The research showed that the smaller the fluid particle size, spring coefficient and relative loading area, the better the supporting effect of fluid filling lining. The study found that the fluid discharge cavity area expanded in the shape of a prismatic. With the increase of the loading area and the pressure relief threshold, the depth of the cavity area is decreased. The expansion model of the cavity area was established and the equation of the pressure area of the cavity area was given. The energy dissipation principle of the pressure relief support technology of fluid filling lining was analysed and the energy dissipation equation was given.
Guava being important cash crop grown in India, but the main technological hurdle is the good quality planting material because nowadays guava production is seriously hampered by wilting, root-knot nematodes and lack of cultivars. So, to provide true mother type plant which is free from disease and high productivity planting material, micro-propagation is only alternative and feasible tool, but micro-propagation in guava again faces problem of browning and microbial combination. So, the main aim of the study was to develop rapid and reproducible regeneration protocol for hybrid guava cvs to provide goods plants on large scale. MSM (Murashige and Skoog medium) and WPM (Woody plant medium) fortified with various combination of different plant growth regulators were used and found that WPM + 2.5 ppm BAP + 0.5 ppm IAA showed higher per cent shoot induction in nodal (51.70%) and shoot tip (52.29%) explants with 2.24 and 1.82 shoots/explants, respectively in cultivar Hisar Safeda. In Hisar Surkha, nodal explants revealed 53.81% and shoot tip explants 53.70 % shoot induction on WPM + 2.5 ppm BAP) + 0.2 ppm NAA with average of 2.04 and 1.32 shoots/explants, respectively. The in vitro regenerated shoots (micro shoots containing at least 3-4 leaves) were transplanted on different rooting medium but ½ strength MS medium + 2.0 ppm of IBA was found most effective per cent root induction of 71.78 % and 66.66% in Hisar Safeda and Hisar Surkha, respectively. These plantlets thus formed were grown on various combinations of sand, soil, vermiculite, farm yard manure and cocopeat for hardening and the medium having vermicullite and cocopeat (1:1) was found most effective with maximum 50-60% survival of plant after transplantation.
The present investigation was undertaken to study the “Effect of IBA and rooting media on air layering of Kagzi lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) under rainfed conditions” at the Rainfed Research Sub-Station for Sub-Tropical Fruits (RRSS), Raya, SKUAST- Jammu during the rainy season of 2020-2021. Juvenile branches with 1.00 to 2.00 cm in diameter were girdled and treated with rooting hormoneIndole-3- butyric acid (IBA) @(500 ppm, 1000 ppm and 1500 ppm), four levels of rooting media in different ratio viz., soil + sphagnum moss (2:1); soil + cocopeat + vermicompost (2:1:1) and soil + F.Y.M + sand (2:1:1) along with the control (soil)and their combinations were investigated. Callus was formed at the girdled portions on all air layers with or without the application of hormone. Results revealed that interaction effect of growth regulator and rooting media, IBA@1500 ppm + soil and sphagnum moss (2:1) proved significant in maximizing success percentage (%) of layered plants (95.99%), root parameters i.e. number of primary roots (30.67), number of secondary roots (40.00), maximum length of primary roots (10.70 cm), maximum length of secondary roots (10.27 cm) and survival percentage of air layered plants (98.68%) after planting, whereas, the minimum was reported in control.
Nowadays, there is considerable interest in the development of millet-based products as they are rich in nutrients and other phyto-nutrients possessing health benefits. Instant soup mixes gained extended popularity in the recent years, for providing convenience, variety and taste. So, millet based instant soup mixes is a way to blend millets with mixture of other ingredients in an acceptable manner that finds a ready market. Statistically significant difference at p≤0.01 was observed between control soup mixes and ESFs with respect to water activity, water holding capacity, water absorption index and water solubility index. The Bulk density ranged from 0.68 g/ml to 0.64 g/ml, rehydration ratio from 2.16 % to 2.37%, water holding capacity from 1.53 to 2.14, water activity from 0.48 to 0.50, water absorption index from 6.51 g/100g to 2.88 g/100g and water solubility index from 6.88 g/100g to 5.65 g/100g for the soup mixes. Statistically significant difference at p≤0.01 was found between control and ESFs with respect to moisture, protein, fat, crude fiber, carbohydrates and energy contents. Moisture content ranged from 5.63% to 7.13 %, protein from 5.56 g/100g to 11.40 g/100g, fat from 0.63 g/100g to 2.80 g/100g, ash from 2.07 g/100g to 0.63 g/100g, crude fiber from 1.00 g/100g to 3.32 g/100 g, carbohydrate content from 85.12 g/100g and 74.46 g/100g and energy content from 369.0 K. Cal/100g to 359.4 K. Cal/100g for the soup mixes. Protein, fat, ash and crude fiber content of ESFs was significantly higher than the control soup mix.