AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA) (issn: 00845841) is a peer reviewed journal first published online after indexing scopus in 1982. AMA is published by Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp and Shin-Norinsha Co. AMA publishes every subjects of general engineering and agricultural engineering.
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (ISSN: 00845841) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers Agricultural and Biological Sciences and all sort of engineering topic. the journal's scopes are in the following fields but not limited to:Azerbaijan Medical Journal Gongcheng Kexue Yu Jishu/Advanced Engineering Science
Soft brown sugar is a sugar product with a distinctive brown colour due to the presence of molasses, known for its added flavour and faster caramelization properties. It is widely used as an ingredient for baking goods. The problem of caking in soft brown sugar has been causing quality deterioration as well as interfering with manufacturing and handling processes in the industry. The aim of this study is to determine the possible factors leading to the caking of sugar in terms of physical properties and flowability properties. These factors are moisture content that is related to colour absorbance as an indication of molasses content, mean particle size, and flowability properties. The moisture content was found to be approximately proportional to the colour absorbance. The mean particle size and moisture content influenced the flowability of the soft brown sugar samples. Compaction of brown sugar into compacts was conducted to imitate industrial warehouse storage conditions in order to investigate the factors of caking. High moisture and fine mean particle sizes were the factors that caused formation of solid bridges between particles hence caking found in this study. In conclusion, the factors that caused caking were high moisture content and fine particle size of brown sugar samples.
Combination of natural polymer with antimicrobial agents from plants for various applications have attracted many researchers due to its non-toxic properties. In this study, the effects of nano sized Carica papaya (CP) seeds (1% to 5% wt.%) from agro-industrial papaya waste modified biodegradable pullulan on thermal and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The effect of silane treatment upon nano sized CP seeds for improving adhesion were examined. Mechanical and thermal properties of the nanosized CP modified pullulan were assessed via tensile test, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Characterization of the film was conducted via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and the surface morphology via Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Tensile strength and elongation at break of pullulan increase at the expense of Young modulus with increasing CP loading. Silane treatment further increased the tensile strength and Young modulus and slightly decreased the elongation at break. The addition of CP seeds reduced the thermal stability of pullulan. The C-H, O-H, C-O-C, and C=O bond at the peaks of 2925.4 cm-1, 3286.1 cm-1, 1031.7 cm-1, and 1556.3 cm-1, respectively, were confirming the presence of pullulan and CP seeds. Si-O-C and Si-O-Si bonds appeared at the peak 1031.7 cm-1 shows the presence of 3-Aminopropyltrymethoxysilane. Morphological analysis showed that most of the CP seeds at all compositions were bounded well by the pullulan matrix due to silane treatment. Overall, the composition which exhibits an adequate thermal stability and highest tensile strength was silane treated CP modified pullulan at 5% CP content.
Proper treatment system for palm oil mill effluent (POME) is crucial to protect waterways systems and enhance sustainability. Conversion of POME into electricity can utilize POME and generate economic return to the palm oil mill. Optimization modelling can demonstrate optimal operation processes and estimate potential economic return. The objective of this study is to analyze the potential treatment system of POME using a mixed-integer programming (MILP) model. The developed model considered multiple factors such as capital cost, maintenance cost, technology capacity, conversion ratio, and electricity price. General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS) software version 26.1.0 major release was selected to optimize the developed MILP model. Based on case study, the developed model selects the anaerobic lagoon system (ALS) with biogas and the anaerobic digester (AD) as the most profitable treatment system for POME. The profit gained from the selected system was RM 2,153 900.00. The payback period for the investment was about 9.69 years with a return of investment (ROI) value of 97.71%.
Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) flowering could be induced either naturally or artificially using flowering hormones. Although the latter was widely practiced among pineapple farmers, obtaining optimum flowering of 90% is still challenging to achieve. This issue affected the production cost and would influence the preference of cultivars to be planted. This study aims to determine the period of naturally induced flowering (NIF) and evaluate the efficacy of artificially induced flowering (AIF) and optimize the AIF using flowering hormones at various concentrations on cv. Pada and cv. Sarawak. Both cultivars were grown in polybag under Sarawak, Malaysia’s growing condition. The average NIF of cv. Pada (planted in January 2020), and cv. Sarawak (planted in February 2020), recorded until 470 days after planting (DAP), occurred at 450 and 412 DAP, respectively. The estimated initiation period of NIF on both cv. Pada, and cv. Sarawak occurred during February 2021, which corresponded to the presence of environmental stimuli (low night temperature and water stress). In AIF, optimum flowering in cv. Pada was obtained under ethephon and calcium carbide treatments, but only ethephon treatments work best for cv. Sarawak, despite failing to achieve the optimum flowering regardless of concentrations used. Following that experiment, optimization of ethephon for cv. Pada found that as low as 50 ppm could induce 90% flowering, while lower than that (25 ppm) needs twice application to promote full flowering. Meanwhile, increasing the hormone concentrations in cv. Sarawak still failed to achieve optimum flowering; however, twice application of low calcium carbide concentration (0.5%) could trigger up to 91% flowering. This study suggests that the longer or frequent hormone exposure to the plant was more effective for AIF rather than using unnecessary excessive concentration.
Oil palm industry is a major contributor to nation’s revenue, however the technology used is simply archaic. Not only that, other industries which are also equally as consequential to generate revenue for the nation have embarked on developing autonomous machines and robot. For this reason, a robot which is entrusted to avail human in amassing loose oil palm fruit has been developed for preliminary studies purpose. While it is a simple robot doing simple tasks in a human-understandable form, it enables straightforward transformation and a revolutionary breakthrough for agriculture industry. This approach imposes the concept of image processing. To narrow the scope of research in this paper, three of the most elementary robot skills: sensing, moving, and vacuuming, are being focused on. To enable future automatic translation from designation to code, a formal designation of the introduced concept has been developed. The robot that has been designed is constructed using cost- efficient materials and works flawlessly under desirable condition. Proximity sensor, as the name implies, is used to measure the distance between the robot and the incoming fruit that is to be sucked. Pi camera, a special camera which is using a proprietary connection with the microcontroller functions as to detect the fruit and send the information to the Raspberry Pi. The probabilities of deploying this robot in the oil plantation are assessed.