AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA) (issn: 00845841) is a peer reviewed journal first published online after indexing scopus in 1982. AMA is published by Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp and Shin-Norinsha Co. AMA publishes every subjects of general engineering and agricultural engineering.
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (ISSN: 00845841) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers Agricultural and Biological Sciences and all sort of engineering topic. the journal's scopes are in the following fields but not limited to:Azerbaijan Medical Journal Gongcheng Kexue Yu Jishu/Advanced Engineering Science
The present study was aimed at investigating language learning strategies used by the first-year students majoring in Engineering at Thai Nguyen University of Technology in Viet Nam. The Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL, version 7.0) developed by Oxford (1990) was employed in the study. The findings revealed that the overall strategy use of the students was at medium level. Specifically, metacognitive strategies were discovered to be applied at the highest frequency, whereas compensation strategies were least favored by the students. Moreover, it was found that there was a significant difference between the strategy use of male and female students regarding to memory and social strategies. Significantly, detailed statistics on each use strategy provide the teacher with useful information that serves as the basis of recommended implications.
A biphasic anaerobic process for fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) with pig manure as co substrate in the acidogenic step and lignocellulosic packing in the methanogenic step was tested. A biphasic process starting with three days of a thermophilic acidogenic digestion, followed by a twelve days methanogenic mesophilic digestion packed with wood chips, was implemented and assessed in terms of efficiency in methane generation and content in biogas. Additionally, alkaline extraction of humic compounds from the residual waste sludge was characterized as liquid humus fertilizer. Average results for 15 days of total hydraulic retention time (HRT), showed a production of 270.3 ml of methane per gram of volatile solids (VS) with 63.5 % of them removed, this is 14 % higher than without lignocellulosic packing, while biogas content of 65.9 % of methane, 9 % higher also. On the other hand, the liquid humus obtained qualified as carbonated organic fertilizer. Even though the conversion efficiency of volatile solids achieved was moderate, the combination of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the yield in methane generation, permits a reduction in the size of digestion reactors and the possibility to obtain a high quality liquid biofertilizer.
In this paper, the results of an optimization study to determine the optimal gear ratio for a two-speed helical gearbox with first-stage double gear sets are presented. The objective function of the problem is the minimum bottom area of the gearbox. To solve this problem, a simulation experiment was performed. In particular, the influence of six main design parameters including the total gear ratio of the gearbox, the wheel face width coefficients of both stages, the allowable contact stress of the first and the second stages and the output torque to the optimal gear ratio of the first stage u1 has been evaluated. In addition, a regression formula to find the optimal gear ratio u1 was given.
Aiming at the conventional quantitative continuous application method of greenhouse hanging crops, the spray equipment cannot automatically adjust the spray flow according to the crop gap and density, which is easy to cause pesticide waste and environmental pollution. A greenhouse target variable spray control system based on fuzzy PID control algorithm is designed. The system uses STM32 microcontroller as the control center, and uses multi-sensor real-time monitoring of crop height, density, spray flow and other information as the control basis. The fuzzy inference of the fuzzy controller is used to adjust the PID parameters online and real-time to achieve precise adjustment of the drug return flow. The response time, overshoot and stability time of the existing variable spraying control algorithm are optimized to achieve the precise control of the target variable spraying in the greenhouse. In order to verify the superiority of fuzzy PID control algorithm in greenhouse target variable spray control system, the traditional PID and fuzzy PID control algorithms are modeled and simulated in Simulink platform. The results show that the lag time of fuzzy PID control is shortened by 0.62 s, the maximum overshoot is reduced by 15.2 %, and the stability time is shortened by 1.31 s. In the actual spraying operation of the greenhouse, the target variable sprayer based on the fuzzy PID control algorithm saves the amount of drug by 31.3 % compared with the conventional continuous spraying, and saves the amount of drug by 1.9 % compared with the traditional PID control algorithm.
Tolpyralate, an HPPD (4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase) inhibitor, is a relatively new pyrazolone herbicide for weed management in maize. Field studies were conducted in two seasons of spring 2016 and kharif 2017 to evaluate the effective dose of tolpyralate 40% SC applied alone or mixed with non-ionic surfactant for weed management in maize as well as its phytotoxic and residual effect on growth and yield of maize and succeeding cowpea fodder and pea crop, at N.E.B.C.R.C. of G.B.P.U.A&T, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand, India. Eight treatments were executed in randomized block design with three replications. The major dominant weed species during both the seasons were Digitaria sanguinalis, Phalaris minor, Echinochloa colona, Panicum maximum among grassy, Chenopodium album, Parthenium hysterophorus, Eclipta alba, Phyllanthus niruri among broad-leaved weeds (BLWs) and Cyperus iria, C. rotundus (3.7%) as sedge. Tolpyralate 40% SC as PoE with surfactant resulted in 50-100% weed control, depending on the weed species and its doses over tolpyralate 40% SC without surfactant. Tolpyralate 40% SC PoE at 60 g/ha achieved the highest grain yield of maize and was statistically at par with its lower dose 50 g/ha and tembotrione 34.4% SC 120 g/ha (standard check), during both the seasons. The tolpyralate 50 g/ha with non-ionic surfactant attained a higher net return (Rs. 92601 and 58203/ha) and B: C ratio (2.6 and 1.6) than without surfactant during spring 2016 and kharif 2017, respectively. Also, no phytotoxic symptoms and residual effect on succeeding crop were observed at any doses of tolpyralate 40% SC.