AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA) (issn: 00845841) is a peer reviewed journal first published online after indexing scopus in 1982. AMA is published by Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp and Shin-Norinsha Co. AMA publishes every subjects of general engineering and agricultural engineering.
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (ISSN: 00845841) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers Agricultural and Biological Sciences and all sort of engineering topic. the journal's scopes are in the following fields but not limited to:Azerbaijan Medical Journal Gongcheng Kexue Yu Jishu/Advanced Engineering Science
Control of a self-balancing vehicle is a challenging but exciting research topic. The challenge of researching self-balancing bicycles is to maintain balance when the bike is stationary as well as when the bike is moving. In this paper, through analysis and comparison of two-wheeled vehicle balancing methods, shows that the method that best meets the requirements of the two-wheeled vehicle balance control problem is the balancing method using a flywheel stabilizer. Compared with the gyroscopic flywheel stabilizer, the inverted pendulum flywheel stabilizer has the advantages of fast response speed and energy saving, so we choose the pendulum flywheel stabilizer reverse to control the balance of the two-wheeler. By modeling and analyzing the two-wheel vehicle model, it shows that the vehicle model is subjected to uncertainties, so the robust controller is an appropriate controller for balancing two-wheel vehicles. However, controller designed according to the robust control algorithm RH is often high-order, affecting the actual control quality. We proposed using the PSO algorithm to find a low-order robust controller from the high-order robust controller. By comparing the efficiency of the low-order robust controller according to PSO with the high-order robust controller and other low-order robust controllers, we have proven the correctness of the low-order robust controller according to PSO. Simulation results show that a two-wheel vehicle using a low- order robust controller according to PSO can stabilize the vehicle and give good control quality.
In this study, a method based on the results of an optimization study on the influence of the main design parameters on the total cost of a worm-helical gearbox was proposed. Specifically, ten main design parameters were investigated to find their influence on the optimum gear ratio of the worm set u1. To do that, a simulation experiment was designed and implemented by a computer program. The results showed that in addition to the influence of the input parameters, their interactions also have important effects on the response u1. Finally, a regression model is proposed and its reliability is confirmed through the results obtained.
Melia azedarach belongs to family Meliaceae. It is a deciduous tree, native to Indian sub-continent but now has spread in many Asian countries and also in different regions of the globe. It is an economically and medicinally important woody tree that is traditionally used for management of malaria, diabetes and skin diseases. It is highly valuable indigenous species. The main difficulty of establishing forest plantation of Melia azedarach species is its poor seed germination. Seed of Melia azedarach are hard and seed pre-treatments aim at breaking the physical barrier to enhance water absorption. The experiment consisted of 38 treatments in which various pre-sowing treatments were applied to the drupes such as normal water (24, 48 and 72 hrs), hot water (4, 6 and 8 min.), hot water with keeping drupe in same water for 24 hrs (4,6 and 8 min.), conc. H2SO4 (4, 6 and 8 min.), Gibberellic acid (200, 300 and 400 ppm for 24 hrs), cow dung slurry (2, 4 and 6 days) and these treatments were also given in combination with mycorrhizal fungi namely Glomus mosseae. Results revealed that the germination, growth, biomass and physiological parameters of pre-sowing treated drupes were significantly increased as compared to control, except for hot water treatment. The germination percentage (75.87) and other quality parameters such as mean daily germination, germination value and speed of germination were recorded highest in treatment with cow dung slurry for 6 days + Glomus mosseae followed by cow dung slurry for 6 days.
To stabilize the crop productivity in rainfed agriculture, it is necessary to characterize rainfall with respect to amount, distribution and its dependability which is an important parameter to evolve suitable cropping patterns. The present investigation has been done to study rainfall characteristics of Rakh Dhiansar (320 39’ N, 740 53’ E, 294 m amsl), Samba district of Jammu region using 30 years (1987-2016) daily rainfall data. In this study, weekly rainfall was worked out from daily values and used for initial, conditional and consecutive dry and wet spell analysis done by using Markov chain probability. The highest rainfall received during the month of August followed by July, September, June and March with the corresponding values of the total amount of rainfall are 321.6, 317.8, 146.6, 92.3 and 63.5 mm with coefficient of variations of 48.7, 41.3, 66.2, 85.0 and 129.2%, respectively. Maximum amount of rainfall was received through S-W monsoon i.e 878.6 mm which accounted for about 77.5% of the annual rainfall in kandi belt of Samba district. The probability of occurrence of wet week is more than 35% during 24 SMW (11-17 June), thus the pre monsoon rains can be utilized for summer ploughing and initial seed bed preparations for the sowing, better germination and good crop stand of kharif crops. It is concluded that there is a need of reconsidering the cropping pattern, selection of crops, their varieties and management practices for kandi belt of Samba district to minimize the risk in crop production as inflicted by rainfall variability.
Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of red and yellow banana pseudo stem flour biscuits were studied to standardize the banana pseudo stem flour supplement in the combine for preparing biscuits. The composite of wheat flour was replaced by banana pseudo stem flour at various percentage incorporation ranges in biscuit production. Nutritional properties of red and yellow banana stem flour incorporated biscuits showed significant difference (p<0.05). Bulk density, water activity and Color values exhibited higher as a result of yellow banana stem flour. Physical properties of biscuits substituted with 30% of banana stem flours were observed significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) value. Proximate analysis results showed higher fibre content in red banana flour biscuits than yellow banana biscuits. Water activity, hardness and colour of the developed biscuits were showing significant difference than control. Sensory attributes indicated that the yellow banana stem flour biscuits had the higher acceptability. Hence, banana stem flour proved acceptable not only in quality characteristics but also fulfills the demand of dietary fibre and is very palatable to ingest and will be one of the agreeable biscuit taste with improved nutritional properties