AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA) (issn: 00845841) is a peer reviewed journal first published online after indexing scopus in 1982. AMA is published by Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp and Shin-Norinsha Co. AMA publishes every subjects of general engineering and agricultural engineering.
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (ISSN: 00845841) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers Agricultural and Biological Sciences and all sort of engineering topic. the journal's scopes are in the following fields but not limited to:Azerbaijan Medical Journal Gongcheng Kexue Yu Jishu/Advanced Engineering Science
Aiming to solve the problem of poor weeding effect and high energy consumption of the paddy between plant weeding device, an inverted V- type counter-rotating weeding device between plant in paddy field was designed. Through theoretical analysis, the main structural parameters of the weeding device were determined. Using MATLAB virtual simulation combined with indoor test, the theoretical rotation trajectory of the weeding claw and the actual soil cutting trajectory model was established, and the factors affecting the weeding performance were determined. The machine forward speed, the rotary velocity of weeding claw and the thickness of the water layer were selected as the test factors, and the stress and the weeding rate were used as the test indicators to perform a rotating orthogonal test. Using variance analysis and response surface analysis methods, the influence of each factor and its first-level interaction on the test indicators were obtained. The multi- objective optimization design method was adopted in order to obtain the best combination of factors and parameters of the inverted V-type contra-rotating weeding device, and the optimization results was verified through indoor test, and finally the field performance of the device was verified through field test. The results showed that the interaction of the machine forward speed and the thickness of water layer, the rotary velocity of weeding claw and the thickness of water layer has an obvious influence on the stress. The order of the influence of each factor on the stress is: thickness of water layer> machine forward speed> rotary velocity of weeding claw. The interaction between the machine forward speed and the rotary velocity of weeding claw, the rotary velocity of weeding claw and the thickness of water layer has an obvious influence on the weeding rate. The order of the influence of each factor on the weeding rate is: rotary velocity of weeding claw> thickness of water layer> machine forward speed. Indoor test verification showed that: under the best combination of parameters with a machine forward speed of 0.76 m/s, a rotary velocity of weeding claw of 112.00 r/min, and a thickness of water layer of 0.01 m, the average stress was 0.54174MPa, and the error between the optimization results was 0.42 % the average weeding rate was 82.344%, and the error between the optimized results was 0.80% at the same time, the seedling damage rate in the indoor test was 4.16% the field test equipment runs smoothly, and the power consumption and weeding performance meet the agronomic requirements of the paddy field weeding machine.
This research work focuses on chemical modification of jute substrate and development of a multifunctional treatment which improves several drawbacks of jute fabric. The assembly of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and sodium sulphite was applied on jute fabric through exhaust method. The results revealed decrease in bending length, flexural rigidity and drape coefficient pointing towards increase in softness and drape of the jute fabric. The colony forming units of Gram +ve bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve bacteria (Escherichia coli) decreased. Additionally, there was decrease in transmission of both UV – A and UV – B rays. The surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The results suggested that chemical modification of jute substrate is multifunctional and results in improving both physical and functional properties of the fabric.
A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the bioefficacy and phytotoxicity of herbicides in urdbean and their residual effect on succeeding transplanted basmati rice. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The major weed flora in summer urdbean were Cyperus spp., Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalis, Solanum nigrum, Physalis minima and Phyllanthus niruri. In herbicidal treatments, Imazethapyr + pendimethalin (RM) @1000 g/ha as pre-emergence significantly reduced total weed density and total weed dry weight which was statistically at par with Imazethapyr + imazamox (RM) @ 80 g/ha at 3-4 leaf stage, Imazethapyr @ 80 g/ha at 3-4 leaf stage, Imazethapyr + imazamox (RM) @ 70 g/ha at 3-4 leaf stage and Imazethapyr @ 70 g/ha at 3-4 leaf stage. There was no visual phytotoxic on the urdbean crop. The seedling and plant did not show any abnormality during the crop growth period. Among the herbicidal weed management treatments, significantly highest number of pods/plant and seed yield were recorded with the treatment Imazethapyr + pendimethalin (RM) @1000 g/ha as pre-emergence which was statistically at par with Imazethapyr + imazamox (RM) @ 80 g/ha at 3-4 leaf stage, Imazethapyr @ 80 g/ha at 3-4 leaf stage, Imazethapyr + imazamox (RM) @ 70 g/ha at 3-4 leaf stage and Imazethapyr @ 70 g/ha at 3-4 leaf stage and remain superior over weedy check. There was no toxicity in terms of chlorosis and stunting were observed on succeeding transplanted rice crop at different intervals due to different weed management practices applied on summer urdbean crop. Different weed management treatments applied in urdbean were failed to show any significant effect on plant height and grain yield of succeeding transplanted basmati rice crop during the both years of cropping.
Field experiments were conducted during kharif and rabi season of 2013-14 and 2014-15 at at the Research Farm of Division of Agronomy, Main Campus, Chatha, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, to study the effect of tillage and weed management on plant growth, weeds dynamics, nutrient uptake, Microbial population and yield of maize-wheat cropping system under irrigated conditions. The experiments were laid out in strip plot design with three replications. Main plot treatment consisted of four tillage methods viz., Zero tillage followed by Zero tillage (ZT-ZT), Zero tillage followed by Conventional tillage (ZT-CT), Conventional tillage followed Zero tillage (CT-ZT) and Conventional tillage followed by Conventional tillage (CT). Three weed management methods viz., Hand weeding, pre-emergence application of herbicide (atrazine @ 1 kg/ha for maize and metribuzin @ 200g/ha for wheat) and Weeding Check for both the crops consisted as the sub plot treatments. The soil of the experiment field was sandy clay loam in texture. The result revealed that among various tillage and weed management practices conventional tillage fb conventional tillage (CT-CT) and atrazine @ 1 kg/ha in maize and conventional tillage fb conventional tillage (CT-CT) and Hand weeding for wheat were found effective as compared to other tillage and weed management treatments in increasing plant growth, nutrient uptake (NPK) and yield, and also reduced in weed density and weed biomass. Although microbial population were higher in Zero tillage followed by Zero tillage (ZT-ZT) and weedy check as compare to other treatments in maize-wheat cropping system.
This paper introduces a new methodology for computing the volume of two-stage helical gearboxes with the first double gear sets. The volume of the gearbox is mentioned as the optimization problem. The six design factors such as the total gearbox ratio, the coefficient of the face width (CFW) of the first gear stage, coefficient of wheel face width (CWFW) of the second gear stage, the allowable contact stress (ACS) of the first stage, the ACS of the second stage, and the output torque were considered to design a screening experiment. To explore the influences of the design parameters on the optimum gear ratio, Minitab @18 was used to set up experiments. Moreover, technique tools i.e., regression and variance analysis were utilized to build the explicit model and to evaluate the reasonability of the model with experimental data. The results show that the optimal gear ratio can be simply computed from given design factors.