AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA) (issn: 00845841) is a peer reviewed journal first published online after indexing scopus in 1982. AMA is published by Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp and Shin-Norinsha Co. AMA publishes every subjects of general engineering and agricultural engineering.
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (ISSN: 00845841) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers Agricultural and Biological Sciences and all sort of engineering topic. the journal's scopes are in the following fields but not limited to:Azerbaijan Medical Journal
Out of 10 varieties of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench screened against the sucking insect pests [leaf hopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] and fruit and shoot borer (Erias spp), none of the variety was found completely free from their infestation, although they differed significantly in their degree of damage and pest number to harbor. During both the kharif seasons, 2019 and 2020, Punjab Padmini reported as the least susceptible variety against both leafhopper (6.26 nymphs/plant) and whitefly (9.32 adults/plant) whereas, lowest fruit and shoot borer infestation was observed on Hisar Naveen (Percent shoot damage- 8.51 Percent fruit damage on number basis- 29.07 Percent fruit damage on weight basis- 29.93). Meanwhile, Arka Nikhita F1 was noted as the most susceptible variety among all the screened varieties against all three major insect pests (Leafhopper- 9.80 nymphs/plant; Whitefly- 15.29 adults/plant; Percent shoot damage by Earias spp.- 12.14 Percent fruit damage by Earias spp. on number basis- 37.18 Percent fruit damage by Earias spp.on weight basis-38.02) investigated during the study period. However, rest of the varieties viz., Hisar Unnat, Varsha Uphar, Punjab Suhawani, Arka Anamika, Punjab-8, Pusa Sawani, Parbhani Kranti were concluded as moderately susceptible varieties.
A field experiment was conducted consecutively for two years in the Shivalik foot hill plains of Jammu and Kashmir on weed dynamics in direct seeded basmati rice that was preceded by wheat. In this study, the impact of different weed management strategies on crop productivity was assessed. The measures adopted to control weeds resulted in the notable enhancement in crop yields. In wheat, the combined application of Isoproturon @1.0 kg/ha + 2,4-D @ 0.500 L/ha as post emergence (30 DAS) was the most effective weed management approach that gave significant control of weeds which in turn increased crop yields. Weed density (no. of weeds/m2) and weed dry weight (g/m2) were recorded minimum with treatments Isoproturon @ 1.0 kg/ha + 2,4- D @ 0.500 L/ha which was statistically at par with mechanical weeding at 30 and 60 DAS. The same treatment produced significantly superior grain yield in comparison to all treatments under study. In the succeeding crop of direct seeded (DS) basmati rice, sequential application of Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg/ha (PE) fb Bipyribac @ 0.030 kg/ha as post- emergence (at 30 DAS) turned out to be the most superior treatment that resulted in the highest suppression of weeds consequently maximum crop grain yields were recorded under the same treatment. Efficacy of different weed control interventions in both the crops were also reflected through various Agronomic Efficiency Indices used in the present investigation.
Dairy production is the robust tool for the rural India to advance their financial as well as social status. The current study was conducted in the dry region and wet region of Haryana, were denoted as Zone-I and Zone-II respectively in this study. Zone-I includes the districts of Kaithal and Karnal. Zone-II comprises of Sirsa and Hisar districts to analyze the constraints faced by the dairy farmers in Haryana state. The present study was carried out by personally interviewing 200 dairy farmers, by adopting multi stage stratified random sampling technique taken on five-point Likert scale, IBM SPSS- 22 software was used for analysing the data by mean score percent. The findings of this study indicated that the major constraints faced by dairy farmers were production constraints, marketing constraints, financial constraints and other constraints like unavailability of skilled labor etc. With respect to production constraints, respondents perceived high cost of compound feed (57 %), lack of specialized dairy training (56.5%) and lack of knowledge about common contagious disease and their control measures (51.5%) as the most important constraint. With regard to financial constraints, the respondents reported that the high rate of interest (53%) was the most critical constraint followed by lengthy procedure for getting loan (63%) and inadequate land availability for fodder cultivation (30%). Poor marketing facilities (49%), lack of transportation facilities (32.5%), late payments received by producers (31.5%) and less remunerative prices of milk (20.5%) were the top 4 constraints under marketing constraints. With regard to other constraints, unavailability of skilled labor (53%) considered as the most important constraint by the farmers. The study revealed that among all the constraints, financial constraints is one of most important constraints and need to be focused more as majority of the respondents were facing problem regarding high rate of interest on dairy loans, dairy farming requires high initial investment hence dairy farmers needs credits. New policies should be framed for credit availability in dairy sector, followed by unavailability of skilled labor, production constraints and marketing constraints. The study suggested that trainings and awareness programs may be formulated frequently to the dairy farmers in the area with which they are more concerned.
The traditional air-assisted side-deep fertilization device has some problems, such as inaccurate parameters of control system and poor precision of variable fertilization. It seriously affects the application and popularization of the device. Aiming at the above problems, this paper want to realize the precise control of air-assisted side-deep fertilization device. This paper constructs an electronically controlled fertilization system based on PID controller. The system model is built in MATLAB, and the transfer function of control system is deduced too. In order to improve the accuracy of control system parameters, the system parameters were optimized based on particle swarm optimization algorithm and control system tuner toolbox. The optimized system parameters of Kp, Ki, and Kd were set 3.05, 10 and 0.32, respectively. The experimental platform of variable fertilization was built according to the system parameters, and the mathematical model of variable fertilization was calibrated. The mathematical model’s R2 was 0.99. The optimized system parameters were imported into the controller, and the controller converted specified fertilizer quality to rotary speed of stepping motor. The driver ordered stepping motor to drive fertilizer discharge shaft at the set rotary speed by the controller. The experimental results showed that the maximum deviation of fertilization rate was 10.76g, which could better meet the requirements of precision fertilization. This research can improve the evenness and accuracy of the application of electric control fertilization.
For an efficient closed hydroponic system for recycling nutrient solution, it is necessary to precisely measure the ion concentration of the macronutrients in the discharged nutrient solution. Nutrient imbalance in the solution can cause plant growth failure, substantial fertilizer waste, and environmental pollution. To optimally recycle the discharged nutrient solution, it is necessary to measure the individual ion concentration. This study was conducted to develop a computer-controlled on-line monitoring system using commercial ion selective electrodes (ISEs); these electrodes measure the ion concentration of macronutrients (K, Ca, NO3) in discharged nutrient solutions. The developed system was applied to a Proefstation voor tuinbouw onder glas te naaldwijk (PTG) nutrient solution for lettuce. The system mainly consists of processing units including a pumping device, a sensor, an agitator, a rinsing device, and control units including the controller, control program, and interfacing device. Particularly, a separate measuring container was used for each ISE in this study. The selected ISEs were tested for time response characteristics and the drift effect to analyze the electromotive force (EMF). The sensitivities of the three electrodes (K, Ca, NO3) were evaluated using concentration controlled standard solutions. The EMF values exhibited high linearity (R2 = 0.99) with the log values of the ion concentration in the regression analysis of all the Ca, and NO3 ion ISEs. A monitoring algorithm was programmed using LabVIEW to control the entire process, which involved the discharged solution sampling, standard solution and ionic strength adjuster (ISA) control, ion concentration measurement, and rinsing & keeping of the electrodes. A two-point calibration method was used in every measurement to compensate for the drift, bias, or long-term change in the electrode response. Various diluted solutions with the PTG nutrient solution for lettuce were used to test the measuring performance of the developed system. The ion concentration of the diluted solution was determined based on the real concentrations in the discharged nutrient solution measured during the lettuce cultivation experiment. The concentrations measured by the developed system and real ion concentrations exhibited high linear correlation. Overall, the measuring errors of all the ISEs were below 4.0% within the concentration range.