AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA) (issn: 00845841) is a peer reviewed journal first published online after indexing scopus in 1982. AMA is published by Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp and Shin-Norinsha Co. AMA publishes every subjects of general engineering and agricultural engineering.
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (ISSN: 00845841) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers Agricultural and Biological Sciences and all sort of engineering topic. the journal's scopes are in the following fields but not limited to:Azerbaijan Medical Journal Gongcheng Kexue Yu Jishu/Advanced Engineering Science Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery Interventional Pulmonology Interventional Pulmonology (middletown, de.)
Smallholder farmers are the main producers of the world’s food and they will have to increase production by up to 100 percent by 2050 to feed the growing population. The focus is on farm mechanization for increasing productivity through judicious use of other inputs and natural resources and at the same time reducing the cultivation cost. The overall farm mechanization in India has been lower at 40-45 per cent compared to other countries such as USA (95 per cent), Brazil (75 per cent) and China (57 per cent). The challenge is to get sustainable mechanization available to farmers so that the poverty cycle can be broken and improved livelihoods ensue. Indian agriculture is diverse and capable of producing most of the food and horticultural crops of the world. In spite of its top ranking in production of a number of crops including rice, wheat, sugarcane, fruits and vegetables, the stagnancy in productivity and shortage of agricultural produce are two major bottlenecks of Indian agriculture. Several studies suggest a direct correlation between farm mechanization and crop productivity. It saves inputs like seeds and fertilizers by 15–20%, labour requirement and operational time by 20–30%, increases cropping intensity by 5–20% and crop productivity by 10–15%. At present, Indian farmers are adopting farm mechanization at a faster rate in comparison to recent past. Farm power availability from tractors has grown from 0.007 kW/ha in 1960–61 to 1.03 kW/ha in 2013–14 and it is further estimated to reach 3.74 kW/ha by 2032–33. According to the World Bank estimates, half of the total Indian population would be in urban areas by 2050. It is further estimated that the percentage of farm workers of total work force would reduce to 49.9% in 2033 and 25.7% in 2050 from 54.6% in 2011. The share of agricultural workers in total power availability in 1960-61 was about 16.3%, which is going to reduce to 2.3% in 2032–33. The overall level of farm mechanization in the country is only 40–45% and 90% of the total farm power is contributed by mechanical and electrical power sources. The smallholder farm sector demand for mechanization needs to be raised to stimulate the product value chain and activate input supply (that is to raise farm productivity, stimulate value addition, and encourage private sector custom hire service provision). The sustainability of mechanization from a natural resource conservation point of view is discussed with reference to conservation agriculture principles. Mechanization appropriate for the smallholder sector covers the range of possible power sources human, draft animal and motorized. The study indicated that with mechanization, the demand for hired labour increased while participation of family labour in crop production declined. To sum up, agricultural mechanization studies had shown that farm mechanization led to increase in inputs due to higher average cropping intensity, larger area and increased the productivity of farm labour. Furthermore, farm mechanization increased agricultural productivity and profitability on account of timeliness of operations, better quality of work and more efficient utilization of crop inputs.
Vegetables are an important part of a well-nutritious human diet, as well as a key component in achieving nutritional security by providing nutrients, vitamins, and minerals. The plants grow in the humid and sub-humid southern plains of Rajasthan that provides high recompense to growers. Production of bottle gourd is limited due to lack of high-yielding as well as better adaptive cultivars. In order to identify high yielding stable genotypes across the diverse environmental conditions, we have evaluated fifty-eight genotypes of bottle gourd in a Completely Randomized Block Design over three different environments in Rajasthan during summer and late Kharif 2021. According to the Eberhart and Russell model for stability analysis, P1 x P6, P1 x P2, P5 x P6 (bi>1) and P1 x P3, P2 x P5 and P3 x P9 (bi<1) were identified as the most promising genotypes for days to anthesis of first male flower, P5 x P6 and P3 x P8 (bi>1) and P1 x P2 and P4 x P5 (bi<1) for days to anthesis of first female flower whereas P5 x P7 and P7 x P8 (bi>1) and P1 x P3, P2 x P8 (bi<1) for number of branches per plant. P8 x P10, P1 x P2, P6 x P10, P5 x P10 (bi<1) and P4 x P8 and P6 x P7 (bi>1) can be used to increase the leaf area index, whereas, P1 x P6, P6 x P9, P6 x P10 (bi<1) and P2 x P8 and P4 x P9 (bi>1) for fruit diameter and P6 x P9 and P1 x P3(bi<1) and P2 x P8, P8 x P10 and P5 x P9 (bi>1) for fruit weight, and P2 x P6, P3 x P6, P2 x P7, P3 x P5 and one checks “Prince” (bi>1) and P6 x P9, P1 x P10, P3 x P4, P2 x P10 (bi<1) for T.S.S and P2 x P6 and P1 x P6 (bi>1) and P1 x P10, P7 x P8, P7 x P10 (bi<1) for ascorbic acid. Since these genotypes were indicated to be the most consistent across the environments for the traits mentioned, they can be successfully suggested to use in breeding programs. The study revealed that some reliable predictions regarding genotype and environment interaction, as well as its unpredictable components, played a relevant role in genotype stability. With this aim, the current study can be used to identify more productive genotypes in specific conditions, resulting in a large improvement in fruit productivity.
African agriculture suffers from under-mechanization which results in the absorption of a large part of the active population for yields that do not take off despite all the programs put in place in the different countries. The low level of use of inputs and poorly adapted equipment are cited among the main constraints to the development of the sector. The labor productivity gap between manual agriculture and the most motorized agriculture in the world is today of the order of 1 to 2000 in gross productivity and 1 to 500 more in net productivity. Senegal has a long history of agricultural mechanization, both in terms of motorized equipment for the production and processing of products and in terms of animal traction. However, many attempts to introduce motorized agriculture have been made in sub-Saharan Africa. Many governmental and non-governmental projects have tried for many years and without much success to adapt motorized equipment on African family farms, while a number of countries have made agricultural mechanization a preferred means of transforming agrarian structures, which has also failed. In recent years, the Senegalese government has implemented a policy of supporting producers in the acquisition of agricultural equipment. Elements of this policy include tax exemption for agricultural equipment, and 40 percent state subsidies for the purchase of agricultural equipment. Analysis of the trajectory of farms in Senegal shows that animal traction is the most widely adopted technology. Motorized agricultural equipment is often acquired as part of support for the agricultural policies in place and is intended for large producers. Motorization mainly concerns rice cultivation in the irrigated areas of the Senegal River valley and the Anambé basin, followed by high value-added crops in the Niayes area.
A field experiment was conducted during the rabi season of 2020-21 at Crop Research Centre Meerut, India. The experimental site was sandy clay loam in texture having soil pH 7.9, organic carbon 0.40%, and 216.0, 11.5, 250.0 kg/ha and 0.80 mg/kg available N, P2O5, K2O and Zn respectively. Novel nutrient sources with 12 treatments consisting of control, basal application of recommended 100% NPK (150:60:40) kg/ha, 75% NPK (112.5:45:30) kg/ha + NPK spray 18:18:18 (15 g/l) + NPK Consortia seed treatment (250 ml in 3 litre water 60/kg seed) + Bio-stimulant (625 ml/ha) + Nano N (4 ml/l) + Nano Zn (10 ml/l) in various combinations were attempted on wheat variety HD 2967 in RBD design with three replications. Treatment having 75% NPK + NPK Consortia + NPK spray + Bio-stimulant spray + Nano Zn spray was on par with 100% NPK with biostimulant/nano Zn and significant over RDF in yield and yield attribute. Respective net return 99.45 × 103 ₹ ha-1 Was also better with B:C ratio of 3.0 over RDF.
Chickpea is a poor weed competitor, and significant yield reduction takes place in presence of weeds. There are limited weed management options available in chickpea. Therefore, we investigated the effect of weed management practices and mulches on weed prevalence, root nodulation and chickpea productivity at Research Farm of JNKVV, Jabalpur (MP), India. A field experiment was conducted on a split-plot and replicated thrice. The main plot was assigned to four weed management viz. pendimethalin 38.7% CS at 1 kg/ha as pre-plant incorporation (PPI), hand weeding at 30 days after sowing (DAS), hand hoeing at 30 DAS and unweeded check, and in subplots four crop residues mulch (CRM), wheat straw (WSM), paddy straw (PSM) and soybean haulm (SHM) each at 5 t/ha and bare land. Results revealed that Unweeded control recorded with maximum weed diversity and biomass followed by hand hoeing at 30 DAS. Imposition of hand weeding at 30 DAS was recorded with the least weeds with lesser weed biomass resulting in higher weed control efficiency (WCE) and better root nodulation, though it was comparable to pendimethalin at 1 kg/ha. Among placed CRM, PSM was recorded with less density, lower biomass with higher WCE and root nodulation which was comparable to WSM but was superior to bare land. Hand weeding at 30 DAS recorded with better yield attributes like pods/plant, seed/pod and seed index lead to higher seed yield (1667 kg/ha) and was at par with pendimethalin at 1 kg/ha. The lower yield attributes and yield was recorded with unweeded control. Among CRM, placement of PSM produced more pods and seeds/pod with a higher seed index resulting in higher seed yield (1554 kg/ha) over others. Thus, placement of PSM at 5 t/ha with one hand weeding at 30 DAS can be recommended for better weed control and higher seed yield in chickpea growing areas of a similar agro-ecosystem.