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AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America

AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA) (issn: 00845841) is a peer reviewed journal first published online after indexing scopus in 1982. AMA is published by Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp and Shin-Norinsha Co. AMA publishes every subjects of general engineering and agricultural engineering.

Submission Deadline
01 Feb 2022 (Vol - 53 , Issue- 02 )
Upcoming Publication
31 Jan 2022 (Vol - 53 , Issue 01 )

Aim and Scope :

AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America

AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (ISSN: 00845841) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers Agricultural and Biological Sciences and all sort of engineering topic. the journal's scopes are in the following fields but not limited to:

Azerbaijan Medical Journal Gongcheng Kexue Yu Jishu/Advanced Engineering Science
Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Electrical Engineering and Telecommunication
Electronic Engineering
Computer Science & Engineering
Civil and architectural engineering
Mechanical and Materials Engineering
Transportation Engineering
Industrial Engineering
Industrial and Commercial Design
Information Engineering
Chemical Engineering
Food Engineering

Anaerobic Co-digestion of Oil Palm Decanter Cake (OPDC) and Sewage sludge for Methane Production

Paper ID- AMA-24-11-2021-10882

Agricultural wastes such as palm oil waste, corn stover, rice straw and wheat straw are some of the wastes that are popular to become feedstocks for anaerobic co-digestion. This is because of their plentiful supply, potential to utilize as a source of biogas, high potential for biogas yields, and low costs. In this study, decanter cake from palm oil mill (OPDC) and sewage sludge were used as substrate to determine the potentiality to produce methane gas from anaerobic co-digestion. Methane yield was analyzed using Excel solver between theoretical yield and experimental yield by using the modified Gompertz Equation. 6400 mL of anaerobic digester was used to conduct the fermentation at mesophilic temperature of 38±1 ⁰C for 30 days. The digester containing sewage sludge and decanter cake mixed at inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratio of 2:1 at 25% of total solid content. Biogas produced was collected and measured using a syringe and transferred into Hungate tube by water displacement method. The biogas composition was measured by gas chromatography (GC). The maximum biogas yield that was produced in anaerobic digester was 5848 mL with the highest methane yield of 581 mL CH4/g-VS at the 14th day. The co-digestion of sewage sludge and decanter cake was converted to methane corresponding to cumulative methane production of 10451 mL CH4/g VS. The experimental yield was compared with theoretical yield by using modified Gompertz. Based on the experimental data, 16748.5 mL of cumulative methane yield was obtained and compared to the cumulative predicted data of 32811.1 mL respectively. In conclusion, decanter cake and sewage sludge have a potential to become substrate in anaerobic co-digestion.

Industrial Palm Oil Mill Ashes and Coal Fly Ash as Potent Constituent and Reinforcer for Soil Bearing Capacity

Paper ID- AMA-24-11-2021-10881

Recently, the glut of residues generated from the oil palm mill sector has become a topical global issue due to poor management strategies that constitute environmental risks. This work focused on the characterization of palm oil mill ashes to improve the bearing strength of weak soil. Palm oil mill ashes, namely boiler bottom ash (POMBBA), boiler retained fly ash (POMBFA), and collector fly ash (POMFA) from the incineration process of oil palm biomass were characterized. The morphology of palm oil mill ashes was observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray analysis was used to analyze the chemical and physical properties of the ashes, with mineral coal fly ash as a control in comparison to palm oil mill ashes. Results of the chemical composition of coal fly ash (CoFA) revealed that it was rich in silicon dioxide (SiO2) with over 38.55%, POMBBA 39.53%, POMBFA 34.77%, and POMFA 15.08% respectively. Yet, enhancement of soft soil requires the presence of Al2O3, Fe2O3, and CaO, to produce a composite with adequate strength. All the chemical constituents of the studied ashes exhibit pozzolanic and cementitious properties, which could reinforce soil bearing capacity and a low-cost binder in the road construction sector.

Effect of Different Scanning Distances on Estimation of Oil Content in Oil Palm Fruitlets using Visible Shortwave Near Infrared Spectroscopy

Paper ID- AMA-24-11-2021-10880

The performance of reflectance spectral measurement using a spectroscopic method could be affected by scanning distances. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of scanning distances on the performance of a spectroscopic method to predict oil content of oil palm fruitlets. A total of 216 fruitlet samples from six bunches at different maturity stages were used. Spectral data was collected using a high-resolution fibre optic spectrometer with wavelengths ranged between 500 and 900 nm. The samples were scanned at five different scanning distances namely 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm. Soxhlet extraction analysis was performed to determine the oil content of the samples. Partial least square (PLS) regression method was used to develop calibration and prediction models to correlate the spectral data with the respective oil content of the samples. For prediction models, the coefficient of determination (R2) for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm scanning distances were 0.95, 0.93, 0.86, 0.83, 0.80 and 0.80, respectively. Artificial neural network (ANN) was used to classify fruitlets samples into the maturity stages and yielded good classification performance with an average of 94%. These results indicate that the oil content of fruitlet samples can be predicted by using the spectroscopic method. However, the scanning distances could affect the prediction accuracy of the models. This study has also demonstrated that the spectroscopic method coupled with ANN algorithm could be applied to classify the maturity stages of oil palm fruitlets.

Comparison of Drying Performance between Large and Medium-Sized Mobile Dryers for In-field Drying of Grain Corn

Paper ID- AMA-24-11-2021-10879

Grain corn production is a relatively new sector in Malaysia. In this sector, a mobile dryer is utilized to reduce grain moisture content from approximately 25% to 14%. This study was undertaken to compare the drying performance between medium-sized (3 tonnes) and large-sized (7 tonnes) mobile dryers that are typically employed by local grain corn producers. In specific, this study examined the effect of drying time on fuel consumption and moisture reduction at three different drying temperatures; 60, 70 and 80°C, utilizing these dryers. The medium-sized mobile dryer consumed 43.6, 30.3 and 24.1 L/t of fuel to dry the grain at temperatures of 60, 70 and 80°C, respectively. The large-sized mobile dryer consumed 36.6, 34.9 and 31.7 L/t of fuel at drying temperatures of 60, 70 and 80°C, respectively. At the specified drying temperatures, the large-sized mobile dryer took 13.1, 11 and 9.1 hr to dry the grain. In addition, the results shows that the optimal drying temperature for both dryers was 80°C. The large-sized mobile dryer utilized 24% more fuel than the medium-sized mobile dryer to dry one tonne of grain. In terms of drying time, the large-sized mobile dryer required 55% longer time to finish each batch of grain drying than the medium-sized mobile dryer. It may be deduced that the medium-sized mobile dryer is more cost effective than the large-sized mobile dryer for in-field grain drying.

Oxidative Effects of Aqueous Ozone (O3) on Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Cold-Pressed Pomegranate Fruit Juice

Paper ID- AMA-23-11-2021-10878

Ozone has gained traction due to its short half-life and non-toxic residues on treated food. However, retaining food nutritional qualities remain the major contributing factor determining the appropriateness of ozone treatment. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of ozone treatment on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of cold- pressed pomegranate juice. Additionally, the correlation between different content of juice (with and without filtration process) and ozone treatment time (from 0 to 30 minutes) was also determined. From the results, it was observed that total color difference (TCD) and pH had significant effects (p < 0.05) from the ozone treatment alone. In comparison, total phenolic (TPC) and ascorbic acid content showed synergistic effects on juice composition and ozone treatment. Only 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity showed a negative impact for both factors, which indicates that the scavenging activity in pomegranate juice was not affected by the content of juice and ozone treatment time. TPC and ascorbic acid content in filtered juice degraded significantly more (p < 0.05) than in unfiltered juice, which might be due to the presence of solids in the unfiltered juice eliciting a defense mechanism towards ozone teatment. In conclusion, unfiltered juice showed better quality characteristics than filtered juice because of its higher preserved qualitative value post-ozone treatment.