AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA) (issn: 00845841) is a peer reviewed journal first published online after indexing scopus in 1982. AMA is published by Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp and Shin-Norinsha Co. AMA publishes every subjects of general engineering and agricultural engineering.
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (ISSN: 00845841) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers Agricultural and Biological Sciences and all sort of engineering topic. the journal's scopes are in the following fields but not limited to:Azerbaijan Medical Journal Gongcheng Kexue Yu Jishu/Advanced Engineering Science
Extinction of fossil fuel and thriving energy consumption pave the way for development of sustainable bioethanol as a top-tier biofuel. Bioethanol can be used in pure form or added to gasoline as gasohol and can be used as octane enhancer in other transportation fuel. Our study highlighted bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass through syngas fermentation conducted in a bioreactor. The conventional yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in the bioprocess technology depicted 8% tolerance towards ethanol and produced 1.40% of bioethanol through syngas (60% CO+ 20% CO2+ 25% H2+ 5% CH4) fermentation at 37oC in 15 days. Bioethanol quantification was established by GC analysis. Further, optimization of different bio-parameters for enhanced bioethanol production is highly essential to scale-up the process, which may reduce the dependency on fossil fuel by contributing a green and sustainable energy.
During March-April 2019, Powdery mildew symptoms were observed on both surfaces of the leaves of Tarlmounia elliptica at several sites in Lahore, Pakistan. The causal agent was identified as Podosphaera xanthii based on morphology and its identity was confirmed by molecular data. This is the first report of Podosphaera xanthii on Tarlmounia elliptica for Pakistan.
SRI (System of Rice Intensification) transplanter requirement is to pick and place single seedlings, it was planned to grow the seedlings themselves in a grid like sparse pattern on a typical transplanter’s tray nursery. In spaced rice mat nursery, single seed was to be sown in each grid. For transplanting one hectare at spacing of 240 × 240 mm, 345 nursery trays are required and it is highly tedious to sowmanually. For developing pneumatic seeding, the physical properties of rice varieties used in Southern India are ASD 18, ASD 16, ADT 36, ADT 43 and KDML 105 were studied. Based on these results, the pneumatic seeding device was constructed with a hollow picker box of 456 × 244 × 42 mm and its bottom surface with a grid of equispaced picker holes of 0.7 mm at spacing of 15.7 × 12 mm that correspond to picking and placing singulated seeds on the mat surface at a single stroke.An experiment was done at all eight suction pressure levels (0.66, 0.8, 1.06, 1.27, 1.6, 1.87, 3.46 and 4.27 kPa), and on three varieties of seeds namely ADT 43 (medium slender), ASD 16(short bold) and KDML (long slender). A multinomial regression was tried on the observed data of the number of seeds picked by each picker hole of the developed picker device and the modelling provided an opportunity to fix the suction level required for maximum singulation of selected varieties as 1.87 kPa, rendering 70 to 80% singulation.
A computational model is constructed and an algorithm for investigation of the stability of a three-layered sloping shell supported by transverse stiffness ribs is developed. The variational method, based on the principle of possible displacements, is used to derive the differential stability equations for the region of the shell enclosed between the edges, as well as the conditions along the edge lines and along the edges of the shell. There was developed a program for the numerical implementation of the author's methodology, it was implemented in the Wolfram Mathematica environment. It is shown that there is a finite value of the moment of inertia of the ribs that supports the shell, at which the maximum critical stress (the critical moment of inertia of the rib) can be reached, which is determined from the stability equation. As an example, we consider a square in plan shell, supported by one and three stiffness ribs. The values of the critical moment of inertia of the rib are presented, which were determined both with regard to the edge Reissner effect and without taking it into account. The dependences of the critical load parameter on the linear dimensions of the shell, reinforced by one and three transverse stiffness ribs, are plotted.
For an efficient closed hydroponic system for recycling nutrient solution, it is necessary to precisely measure the ion concentration of the macronutrients in the discharged nutrient solution. Nutrient imbalance in the solution can cause plant growth failure, substantial fertilizer waste, and environmental pollution. To optimally recycle the discharged nutrient solution, it is necessary to measure the individual ion concentration. This study was conducted to develop a computer-controlled on-line monitoring system using commercial ion selective electrodes (ISEs); these electrodes measure the ion concentration of macronutrients (K, Ca, NO3) in discharged nutrient solutions. The developed system was applied to a Proefstation voor tuinbouw onder glas te naaldwijk (PTG) nutrient solution for lettuce. The system mainly consists of processing units including a pumping device, a sensor, an agitator, a rinsing device, and control units including the controller, control program, and interfacing device. Particularly, a separate measuring container was used for each ISE in this study. The selected ISEs were tested for time response characteristics and the drift effect to analyze the electromotive force (EMF). The sensitivities of the three electrodes (K, Ca, NO3) were evaluated using concentration controlled standard solutions. The EMF values exhibited high linearity (R2 = 0.99) with the log values of the ion concentration in the regression analysis of all the Ca, and NO3 ion ISEs. A monitoring algorithm was programmed using LabVIEW to control the entire process, which involved the discharged solution sampling, standard solution and ionic strength adjuster (ISA) control, ion concentration measurement, and rinsing & keeping of the electrodes. A two-point calibration method was used in every measurement to compensate for the drift, bias, or long-term change in the electrode response. Various diluted solutions with the PTG nutrient solution for lettuce were used to test the measuring performance of the developed system. The ion concentration of the diluted solution was determined based on the real concentrations in the discharged nutrient solution measured during the lettuce cultivation experiment. The concentrations measured by the developed system and real ion concentrations exhibited high linear correlation. Overall, the measuring errors of all the ISEs were below 4.0% within the concentration range.