AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA) (issn: 00845841) is a peer reviewed journal first published online after indexing scopus in 1982. AMA is published by Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp and Shin-Norinsha Co. AMA publishes every subjects of general engineering and agricultural engineering.
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (ISSN: 00845841) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers Agricultural and Biological Sciences and all sort of engineering topic. the journal's scopes are in the following fields but not limited to:Azerbaijan Medical Journal
In Morocco, there is a whole range of enemies of common beans, insects (aphids, whitefly, leaf miner, and spider), nematodes, diseases (grease, rust, powdery mildew and various rots) and viruses. Severe damage caused by theses enemies in this crop has led to the usage of different chemical insecticides. The residues of these chemicals, however, cause deleterious effects to man like cancer, adverse effects on immune systems, neurological disorder, and metabolic diseases such as diabetes, endocrine system disruption, and infertility and to the environment like the destruction of the biodiversity and contamination of water and soils. In recent years the interest in nanobiopesticides have increased because of their efficiency in small quantities and because they are environmentally safe. Biopesticides are a type of pesticides obtained from natural sources such as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. Nanotechnology is a developing field dealing with materials having a size of 10−9. Farmers have been using this technology for proper plant growth stimulation, diagnosis of plant disease, and pest control. In this review, we are interested in plant and metal nanoparticles based pesticides. The development of efficient green chemistry methods for synthesis of metal nanoparticles is an eco-friendly technique for production of well-characterized nanoparticles. In addition, we chose plants for our study because they are easily available; safe to handle, and possess a broad variability of metabolites that may aid in reduction, plants are successfully used in the synthesis of various green nanoparticles such as cobalt, copper, silver, gold, platinum, zinc oxide and Titanium oxide. Therefore, metal nanoparticles produced by plants are stable and easy to synthetize. We collected, in this review a variety of plants used in the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles to formulate nanobiopesticides against common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) pests and diseases in Morocco. The green metal nanoparticles show promising results in pest management and the application of available literature on the challenges affecting common bean production in Morocco was theoretically successful, but it requires in vitro and also in planta applications and they must be monitored for potential toxic effects on flora and fauna activity, abundance, and diversity.
Medicinal plants in general and essential oils in particular have been recognized as an important natural source of biopesticides. In addition, the effectiveness of these essential oil formulations comes down to the chemical composition which is dominated by a major compound or compounds which presents an interesting prospect and an alternative way of chemical products. The results of this short communication present some works of the value of the essential oil of cedar sawdust (EOCS) as a bioinsecticide for attacks of biotic origin during storage of cereals. The essential oil was obtained by extraction from the Clevenger apparatus. The major constituents in this oil were detected using gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry and their insecticidal tests was try against adults of three species: Sitophilus granarius, Rhyzopertha dominica and Trogoderma granarium.
In Ukraine, during the last decade, much attention is being paid to improvement of biofuel and bioenergy usage efficiency, which allows to reduce dependence of the national economy on import of energy sources, bring down its energy capacity and ensure economic development. The results of conducted research show that energy consumption for growing poplar biomass is 9.1-10.0 times lower than amount of energy accumulated in it. The most intensive economic effect when growing energy willow grew in the variants with planting density of 15 and 12 thousand pcs/ha and application of mineral fertilizers, where profit of 22.6-23.8 thousand UAH/ha was achieved. The most energy-efficient variant among those used in the research was the one with planting density of 12 thousand pcs/ha and application of mineral fertilizers, at which energy efficiency coefficient reaches 7.9. The most intensive economic effect when growing energy poplar grew in the variants with planting density of 6.7 and 5.6 thousand pcs/ha and application of mineral fertilizers, where profit of 33.9-30.9 thousand UAH/ha was achieved.
In the present study, potentially edible and nutritious Pleurotus spp. i.e., P. cystidiosus, P. floridanus, P. ostreatus were collected to figure out their cultural characteristics and to find out the optimum requirements for their mycelial growth which are the pre-requisite requirements for their successful cultivation. Their mycelial features were observed on the different nutrient media at different temperatures. Mycelium of each species was assessed morpho-anatomically. Mycelium growth pattern and texture of three Pleurotus species were irregular and cottony while a special anamorphic stage (Antromycopsis macrocarpa) in the form of Coremium and coremioliquid appeared during the cultural growth of P. cystidiosus. Anatomically mycelium of each species was septate and clampedwith the addition of toxocyst and arthroconidia production in the anamorphically grown myceliumof P. cystidiosus, which is unreported feature for this species from Pakistan. P. floridanus took more time to completely colonize the petriplates on all media followed by P. cystidiosus and P. ostreatus. All species have spawn production potential but spawn production rate was more of P. ostreatus followed by P. floridanus and P. cystidiosus. The linear growth rate was assessed on the mixed substrate of sawdust and wheatstraw. P. floridanus, P. ostreatus, P. cystidiosus mycelium showed their best colonization rate at 16ᵒC, 22ᵒC, and 28ᵒC respectively. From these results it could be assessed that these nutritionally and medicinally significant Pleurotus spp. possess the cultivation potential and their cultivation on large scale can meet the nutritious need of the growingpopulation of the world.
The chemical composition of the essential oil extracted from the dried aerial parts of Thymus zygis harvested from the Khenifra region (central Middle Atlas of Morocco) was studied by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (CPG and CPG / MS). Fifty-four (54) constituents, representing (99.98%) of the essential oil have been identified. The majority compounds are: Linalool (4.79%), Camphene (4.00%), Thymol (38.59%), Carvacrol (4.69%), o-cymene (19.11%) and β-E- ocimene (10.20%) with a total percentage of 81.38%. The insecticidal activity was achieved against Aphis fabae. This preliminary study showed that the essential oil of Thymus zygis has a high toxicity towards this insect. The results of the tests showed a very important activity during 24 hours of the treatments confirmed by the values of LD50 and LD90. This activity was probably due to its major constituents. The antibacterial activity was studied in vitro against gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis (CECT 498) and Staphylococcus aureus (CECT 240), gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (CECT 516), and Micrococcus luteus (CECT 244). The results of the tests helped to quantitatively assess the antibacterial activity by searching for minimum inhibitory concentrations of MIC and minimum bactericidal concentrations of CMB, which have a variable activity depending on the strain tested. The study of the antioxidant activity of Thymus zygis oil compared with the usual antioxidants α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid showed that this oil has an antioxidant effect.