Chickpea is a poor weed competitor, and significant yield reduction takes place in presence of weeds. There are limited weed management options available in chickpea. Therefore, we investigated the effect of weed management practices and mulches on weed prevalence, root nodulation and chickpea productivity at Research Farm of JNKVV, Jabalpur (MP), India. A field experiment was conducted on a split-plot and replicated thrice. The main plot was assigned to four weed management viz. pendimethalin 38.7% CS at 1 kg/ha as pre-plant incorporation (PPI), hand weeding at 30 days after sowing (DAS), hand hoeing at 30 DAS and unweeded check, and in subplots four crop residues mulch (CRM), wheat straw (WSM), paddy straw (PSM) and soybean haulm (SHM) each at 5 t/ha and bare land. Results revealed that Unweeded control recorded with maximum weed diversity and biomass followed by hand hoeing at 30 DAS. Imposition of hand weeding at 30 DAS was recorded with the least weeds with lesser weed biomass resulting in higher weed control efficiency (WCE) and better root nodulation, though it was comparable to pendimethalin at 1 kg/ha. Among placed CRM, PSM was recorded with less density, lower biomass with higher WCE and root nodulation which was comparable to WSM but was superior to bare land. Hand weeding at 30 DAS recorded with better yield attributes like pods/plant, seed/pod and seed index lead to higher seed yield (1667 kg/ha) and was at par with pendimethalin at 1 kg/ha. The lower yield attributes and yield was recorded with unweeded control. Among CRM, placement of PSM produced more pods and seeds/pod with a higher seed index resulting in higher seed yield (1554 kg/ha) over others. Thus, placement of PSM at 5 t/ha with one hand weeding at 30 DAS can be recommended for better weed control and higher seed yield in chickpea growing areas of a similar agro-ecosystem.