The quality of vegetables is determined by many factors such as texture, flavor, chromaticity, and health-beneficial metabolites. Chinese cabbage is one of the most commonly consumed vegetables in Western and Asian and countries including Korea. Change in firmness of Chinese cabbage leaf tissues has not been comprehensively studied, although it serves as an important quality indicator of this product. The objective of this study was to characterize textural parameters of Chinese cabbage and to compare them in different cultivars and cultivation practices (soil fertigation or hydroponics). Soluble sugar content, leaf thickness, and chromaticity were higher in plants grown via hydroponics than in those grown via fertigation. Meanwhile, firmness and dry mass of midrib tissues showed an opposite trend in all tested cultivars. Additionally, starch contents and cell wall compounds (i.e., polyuronides and non-cellulosic neutral sugars) of midrib tissues were detected higher in plants grown via fertigation than in those grown via hydroponics. Moreover, the amounts of starch, cell wall compounds, and neutral sugars showed a positive correlation with the firmness of Chinese cabbage leaf tissues. Taken together, these data provide an informative insight for improving cultivation practices, particularly hydroponics of Chinese cabbage plants.