In order to improve the working efficiency of the horizontal-roller cotton stalk pulling device, and reduce the cotton stalk leakage rate and breakage rate during the operation of the machine, the design was optimized. The device is mainly composed of the stalk conveying device and the stalk pulling device. Based on the analysis of cotton stalk conveying and pulling process, we know that there are three working parameters that affect the pulling effect of the horizontal-roller cotton stalk pulling device: the forward speed, the belt wheel speed, the rotational speed of the pulling roller. The three-factor, three-level orthogonal experiment was carried out. The results showed that the better working parameters combination were obtained as follows: the forward speed was 2.8 km /h, the belt wheel speed was 209 r/min, the rotational speed of pulling roller was 239 r/min, and a validation test was conducted on the optimal operation parameter combination. The validation test results showed that the cotton stalk leakage rate was 6.24% and the cotton stalk breakage rate was 3.94%. The research results provide a theoretical basis for the design and optimization of the cotton stalk pulling device.