The difficulty of harvesting safflower filaments is a problem for the development of the safflower industry. In this research, a harvester that uses reciprocating shearing to harvest safflower filaments was developed and then tested by harvesting No. 5 Yumin stingless safflower plants in Xinjiang. Whether to install fixed blades, the DC motor speed, and the installation angle were the test factors, and the net harvest rate and impurity content were the response indices. The optimal parameter combination was obtained by a quadratic orthogonal regression test. The optimal parameters were DC motor speed of 150 r/min, installation angle of 45° and fixed blades. In field testing, the harvesting rate of safflower filaments was greater than 95%. The test results were close to the predicted values, and the model was verified as effective.