The overuse of agrochemicals associated with increased input costs in agriculture has led to the emergence of an alternate method of farming in India known as Natural Farming (NF). NF is considered to be an agro ecology-based environment-friendly diversified farming system, which integrates crops, trees and livestock allowing functional biodiversity. It relies on four pillars- cow dung and urine-based inputs (beejamrit, ghanjeevamrit and jeevamrit), intercropping, mulching and whapasa (limited soil moisture). It encourages use of on-farm inputs and indigenous practices and reduces dependence on off-farm purchased inputs. NF has its roots in the state of Karnataka, and other states like Andhra Pradesh are trying to replicate this model. Mixed results have been reported from different states regarding its effect on the sustainability of agriculture and food security. Therefore, scientific validation of NF on a wide range of crops in diverse agro-climatic regions is required to draw some solid conclusions. Its implications on Indian agriculture in respect of national food security need to be studied as India will need 345 million tonnes (mt) of food grains by 2030 against the current level of 296 mt. This review delineates the growth and scope of NF in India and its effect on soil, plant and animal health.