Wheat crop plays a vital role in the cereal crops to ensure the food security of India. In the high-yielding wheat production systems of Northwest (NW) Indo-Gangetic Plains of India (IGP), intensive tillage operations and burning or removing crop residue have led to high production costs, decreased farm productivity and profitability. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of mechanical cultivation (tillage and crop establishment) and different crop residues on the growth, yields and economics of wheat at CIMMYT- CSSRI Research platform Karnal, India. The scenarios were included; Sc1- conventional tillage (CT) wheat without residue (-R); Sc2- Zero tillage wheat (ZTW) with rice residue (+R); Sc3- ZTW with full rice residue (+R); Sc4- Wheat on permanent beds (PBs) with partial maize residue (+R); Sc5- Wheat on PBs with partial soybean residue (+R); Sc6- Wheat on PBs with partial pigeonpea residue (+R). Compared to farmer practice (Sc1), CA-based management practices (Sc2 to Sc6) significantly improved the crop productivity, profitability and quality parameters. Based on 2' years mean, yield and net returns of varied management scenarios were increased by 11.4, 10.7, 7.2, 2.6 and 1.1 % and 17.4, 16.1, 13.6, 8.9 and 7.2% under Sc2, Sc3, Sc4, Sc5 and Sc6, respectively compared to Sc1 (farmers’ practice). Overall, CA-based management practices (mean of Sc2-Sc6) increased the yield by ~7%, net return by 13%, sedimentation value by 7%, gluten content by 22%, falling number by 6% and 20% reduce cost of cultivation compared to Sc1. Results suggest that CA-based management practices can increase yield, profitability and quality from wheat production in NW India.