This study has accessed the economic impact of Sub-Surface Drainage (SSD) technology on sugarcane production. The 'with' and 'without' approach was adopted for the collection and analysis of data. 60 sample farmers ‘with SSD’ and 60 sample farmers ‘without SSD’ consisting of total 120 farmers were selected from three tahsils of Sangli district of Maharashtra. The average per hectare establishment cost of SSD system was observed to be Rs. 1,38,183. The per quintal cost of production for adsali sugarcane for with and without SSD farms was Rs. 219 and 279 respectively. The gross return of adsali sugarcane was observed to be 40.77 per cent more on ‘with SSD’ farms as compare to the ‘without SSD’ farms of adsali sugarcane. The per quintal cost reduction for adsali sugarcane observed to be 27.43 per cent on ‘with SSD’ farms over the ‘without SSD’ farms. The per farm gross income accrued from cultivation of adsali sugarcane was Rs. 414675.25 and Rs. 245619.15 on farms with and without SSD, respectively showed an increase of 40.77 per cent in gross returns due to the adoption of SSD technology. While, the farm business income, family labour income, net income were also higher on farms with SSD over the farms without SSD with the tune of 67.98, 86.65and 104.44 per cent, respectively.