Aiming at the problems such as single working performance and poor effect of subsoiling and turning soil in the operation process of potato tillage machinery, a shallow turning and subsoiling device is designed and its main structure, working principle, and corresponding agronomic requirements are described. The conditions of plowing during shallow turning and the forces between subsoiler and furrow slice during subsoiling are analyzed. The factors that affecting the effect of plowing and the quality of subsoiling operation are determined. The rotating orthogonal combination experiment is used to optimize the key components, taking the plough body angle, plough body tillage depth, subsoiler tillage depth and machine operation speed as experimental factors, the plowing rate and the tillage depth stability as experimental indexes, analyzing field test results. The structure parameters and operation parameters of shallow turning and subsoiling device are optimized by optimization module in Design-Expert 8.0.6 software, the angle of plough body is 35°, the tillage depth of plough body is 179 mm, the tillage depth of subsoiler is 356 mm, and the machine operation speed is 1.16 m/s. The experimental results demonstrate that the plowing rate is 86.23% and the tillage depth stability is 92.17%. The soil tillage requirements before potato planting can be met, the reference for design and application of potato tillage machinery is provided.