In order to solve the problem of low efficiency in peeling green husks and long–term piling up of green almonds, a brush roller type almond peeling machine was designed in this study. Driven by three–phase power and under the effect of the belt and bucket elevator, green almonds were uniformly conveyed to the peeling chamber by a screw feeder, then the almonds are subject to the reverse action between the microcone extrusion device and the roller and the green peels were partially separated from husks. On this basis, the steel brushes would peel the almonds and remove the impurities. The physical parameters of green almonds and hard shell almonds were measured, and based on the values of the parameters, the main working parts of the device were designed and analyzed, and their main structural parameters and working parameters were determined. The software Design–Expert was applied to design a three–factor–three–level response surface test on the designed brush roller type almond peeling machine. Test results showed that, the optimal working parameters of the device were: rotating speed of the principal axis was 307.5 r/min, the gap was 20.1 mm, production rate was 811.5 kg/h, peeling rate was 96%, damage rate was 2.28%. The research results can provide reference to the improvement of performance of peeling machines and design of primary processing equipment of almonds.