Journal ID : AMA-17-08-2023-12517
[This article belongs to Volume - 54, Issue - 08]
Total View : 362

Title : Delineation of Spatial Variability of Soil Fertility through Digital Soil Maps: A case study of Central Plain Zone of North-West India

Abstract :

Digital maps are powerful tools that allow for the visualization and analysis of this variability, providing valuable insights into the distribution of features across space. Sustainable farming practices begin with focusing on smaller areas with better soil than larger ones. No single concept can account for the wide range in soil conditions. The current investigation was carried out at a Krishi Vigyan Kendra(KVK), Kapurthala, an agriculture extension centre of Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, where 15 ha of farmland was divided into four blocks in order to map the spatial variation in soil properties such as soil organic carbon, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and available phosphorus (P), potassium (K), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) (mg kg-1), and SOC stocks using geo-statistics. To account for spatial soil variance, digital soil mapping (DSM) was developed following the creation of the base maps using QGIS. Using a standardized technique and GPS instrument, a total of 69 soil samples were collected from different locations in blocks A, B, C, and D, at various soil depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-60 cm). The surface soil pH in KVK was found to be close to neutral (7.06), while the electrical conductivity (EC) and soil organic carbon (SOC) ranged from 0.7 to 0.21 m mhos cm-1 and 1.95 to 3.98 g kg-1, respectively. For different crops, it was observed that a 25% higher dose of fertilizers than the recommended amount was necessary. In specific quantities, the average phosphorus content in blocks A, B, C, and D was 10.15 kg ha-1, 9.27 kg ha-1, 8.99 kg ha-1, and 9.35 kg ha-1, respectively. Similarly, the average potassium content in the same blocks was 112.4 kg ha-1, 103.3 kg ha-1, 102.5 kg ha-1, and 107.4 kg ha-1. These results indicate deficiencies in phosphorus and potassium levels and suggest the application of appropriate fertilizers to address the nutrient imbalances in the soil. The values for DTPA-Fe, Mn, and Cu in the surface soils of each of the four blocks (A, B, C, and D) were 20.12, 13.92, 6.88, and 4.86; 7.31, 6.08, 15.10, and 15.30; 1.23, 0.75, 0.54, and 0.64 mg kg-1. The DTPA-Zn content of the topsoil in Block A was 7.21 mg kg-1, but in Block C it was only 1.41 mg kg-1. No micronutrients were needed in any KVK block. Block A has the largest C stock (17.04 Mg ha-1) while block C had the lowest (13.22 Mg ha-1). The KVK as a whole had average bulk densities. Soil quality can be enhanced through the use of organic amendments such as green manuring, farm yard manuring, etc. These maps support land-use planning, precision agriculture, and monitoring soil health over time to make informed decisions for sustainable land management practices.

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