Mustard becomes an essential oilseeds crop with its positive nature of suitability to climate condition for its cultivation, being an important of human diet and industrial uses of its main and by product. Mustard is cultivated in all parts of the world and its oil as well as leaves occupy an important place in human diet. Mustard oil is equally used in the diet of vegetarians as well as non-vegetarians. This study was performed on One hundred twenty respondents who were selected through multistage sampling technique from four villages of Maudaha block of Hamirpur district. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to draw the inferences. Respondents were categorised as marginal, small, medium, and large size of farm. Cost of cultivation were increases with the farm size, the economic condition best in large size of farms compare to other size of farms. Highest cost incurred in the production of mustard was found in large size in farm Rs 49053 per hectare and least in marginal farms (Rs.39295). And over all farms cost of cultivation of mustard crop was found Rs 45292, with highest share of cost as human labour Rs 8038.25, per hectare. On overall gross income was recorded Rs 58496 and net income came to Rs 13202. Large farms gross income was found highest as Rs. 64268 and least was found with marginal farms i.e. Rs.53400 respectively. The overall benefit cost ratio over cost C1, C2, and C3 was found to be 1:2.15, 1:1.42 and 1:1.28 on all farms basis respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2) value was found to be 0.79 for independent variables like phosphorus(X1), nitrogen(X2),man-days (X3),irrigation(X4), seeds(X5). Phosphorous, Nitrogen, Plant protection chemicals and seeds were found significantly contributing in the yield. Man- days and irrigation are found over utilized resource and phosphorus, nitrogen, plant protection chemicals and seeds were found underutilized. The production function has been found increasing returns to scale.