This research establishes a structural equation model (SEM) in order to investigate the factors affecting the technical and economic effects of rice mechanization (EE) and their relationships. Noticeably, six latent variables, including the EE, labor factors, land factors, agricultural mechanization development level (AML), policy and socio-economic condition (SEC), are considered. More-over, the correlations and laws of the aforementioned potential influencing factors are demonstrated for strengthening EE. The findings indicate that the AML is the most sensitive variable in the EE. It is noteworthy that the land factor has not only an effect on the EE directly but also has an indirect influence by the AML however, the total effect of the land is negative. In addition, all of Policy, SEC, and labor are the indirect influencing factors through AML, which plays a completely mediating effect. Therefore, the Chinese government should continuously enhance agricultural mechanization to encompass the entire process with a high level of quality and efficiency. Meanwhile, land and other factors of production such as agricultural technology are fostered to create a mutual adaptation effect.