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AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America

Submission Deadline
04 Oct 2023 (Vol - 54 , Issue- 10 )
Upcoming Publication
31 Oct 2023 (Vol - 54 , Issue 10 )

Aim and Scope :

AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America

AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (ISSN: 00845841) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers Agricultural and Biological Sciences and all sort of engineering topic. the journal's scopes are in the following fields but not limited to:

Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Electrical Engineering and Telecommunication
Electronic Engineering
Computer Science & Engineering
Civil and architectural engineering
Mechanical and Materials Engineering

Challenges, Scope, and upcoming strategies for Direct Seeding of Rice: A Global Meta-analysis

Paper ID- AMA-15-04-2023-12195

In the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, the predominant cropping system occupies 13.5 million hectares and consists of rice and wheat. Rice cultivation using the traditional puddle transplanted method requires a lot of water, capital, and energy. The structural integrity of the soil will deteriorate as a result of this system. Additionally, wheat yields are affected by aeration stress because of the formation of hard pans during the rice growing season. Growing plants on a mat-type nursery require specific expertise, and learning how to operate a transplanter puts mechanical transplanting in the background as a secondary choice. Sustainable rice production is possible with the use of direct sowing with zero or reduced tillage if the issues of weeds, nutritional deficiencies, worms, and the establishment of an aerobic variety are dealt with. Direct seeding of rice is an option for sustainable rice production. In addition, rice grown via direct seeding results in lower emissions of greenhouse gases. In this article, we examine the efficacy of directly seeding rice in soils with varying textures and a variety of agroclimatic conditions, as well as the primary challenges that this method presents.

Development and Performance Evaluation of Garlic Splitter Cum Grader

Paper ID- AMA-15-04-2023-12194

Agriculture in Pakistan is vital for the country's economy and food security, employing over 40% of the workforce and contributing significantly to the GDP. Beside major cash crops, different vegetables and fruits including garlic have a potentially high economic value. Across the farming community, garlic is usually split manually using labor force. For planting purpose, graded garlic cloves are required. Therefore, there is a need for a machine which splits and grades the garlic simultaneously. In this study, a garlic splitter cum grader was developed and its performance was evaluated. According to the results, the machine achieved 48 times more garlic splitting compared to manual labor per working day. Additionally, the machine achieved a material capacity of 6 maund/working hour. The machine was tested at different rpm, clearance, feed rate, and bulb size. In addition, two different varieties of garlic namely Chinese and Desi variety were used for the performance evaluation. The machine splits and grades the garlic cloves into three different categories (i.e., small, medium, large). Furthermore, it was observed that the manual labor only provides splitting service whereas the machine provides splitting as well as grading. It was concluded that the machine could potentially save 346 PKR/maund of split garlic.

An insight into combining ability, heterosis and gene action for false smut disease resistance and agronomic traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Paper ID- AMA-13-04-2023-12192

Thirty F1s were generated using six rice genotypes with different levels of resistance to false smut based on Griffing’s full diallel fashion and evaluated at Hybrid Rice Evaluation Centre, Gudalur (Hotspot location), Tamil Nadu, India to understand the disease reaction, gene action and combining ability for seven disease related and 13 agronomic traits. Highly significant lower mean disease incidence of number of infected grains per panicle was recorded in the parents, RG170 and RG172. Eight and 11 crosses exhibited highly resistant and resistant reaction respectively. GCA variance was numerically higher than the SCA variance for 16 traits and Baker’s ratio revealed strong additive gene action for five traits. Combining ability analysis revealed marked variations of gca and sca effects for most of the studied traits in parents and crosses respectively. Parent RG 170 was inferred as the best general combiner for false smut disease resistance and agronomic traits. The crosses RG170/BPT5204 and RG162/RNR15048 expressed desirable sca effects for most of the resistance traits notably, number of infected plants, number of infected tillers and percentage of infected tillers. Use of one parents with resistance or moderate resistance would provide adequate false smut resistance combined with yield. The crosses identified from the present study viz., RG162/RG170, RG162/BPT5204, RNR15048/RG162, RG22/BPT5204, RG170/RG172 and BPT5204/ RG172 can be further utilized in pedigree breeding by scoring for false smut resistance in each generation and selection for other agronomic traits based on gene action in order to develop recombinants combining yield and false smut resistance in rice.

Use of Design of Experiment to Optimize Tractor Hourly Fuel Consumption during Harrowing Operation

Paper ID- AMA-12-04-2023-12189

This study was conducted on the use of design of experiment to optimize tractor hourly fuel consumptions during harrowing operation. Its aims to enhance the fuel utilization efficiency by a tractor harrowing operation to reduce operational cost and increase agricultural productivity. The optimization is necessary to minimize energy usage during harrowing operation, which leads to severe wastage and economic loss. The field experiment took place at the Rivers Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (RIART) Farm in Port Harcourt, Rivers State University. The experimental land measured 160 m by 38 m (4,480 m2) and was divided into three blocks, each with nine plots. Each plot was 50 m by 2 m, with a 1 m walkway between each plot for different treatment options, and a 2 m space between each block and 1 m at the sides of the outer blocks. The design consisted of 9 treatments with three replicates, and total number of 27 treatments. The field test parameters (harrowing depth, and tractor forward speed) and hourly fuel consumptions were measured according to their specific standards. The study used MINITAB 19 software to conduct statistical analyses of the general full factorial design (GFFD), including model fit adequacy, analysis of variance (ANOVA), main and interaction effects, multiple linear regression model, and response optimizer (Minitab Inc, State College, PA, USA). Also, the validity of the model was checked using standard error (SE), coefficient of determination (r2), Adjusted r2, and prediction r2. The Pareto charts of standard effect suggested that the impact of harrowing depth and tractor forward speed, and their interactions are statistically significant on the hourly fuel consumption during harrowing. The normal probability plot, showed that the fuel consumptions data during harrowing is approximately normally distributed, which satisfies the first condition of model fitness examination. Also, the histogram plot displayed an approximately normal distribution. Hence, this observation further supports the usual distribution of the tractor hourly fuel consumptions. The residual vs fitted value plots revealed that the data points for hourly fuel consumption data during harrowing are randomly distributed with no notable pattern, confirming the constant variance condition of the residuals. The residual points are also fully random, according to a plot of residual vs observation order. As the three assumptions were generally observed, thereby revealed that the multiple linear regression model generated could expresses the experimental results well for tractor hourly fuel consumptions during harrowing operation. Based on the statistical analysis, ANOVA in GFFD indicated significant difference with 95 and 99% confidence (P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels of significance) regarding the impact of harrowing depths and tractor forward speed and their interactions effect on tractor hourly fuel consumption during harrowing. Also, standard error of very negligible numbers was revealed for harrowing confirmed that the multiple linear regression could predict the experimental data correctly. The results of the coefficient of determination (r2) adjusted r2, predicted r2 are 99.88%, 99.81%, and 99.66%, respectively for hourly fuel consumption during harrowing. These suggest 99.66% of the variability in the dataset were explained by the estimated multiple linear regression model created for the tractor fuel hourly fuel consumption. Optimized tractor hourly fuel consumption during harrowing, was attained at harrowing depth 0.09 m and tractor forward speed of 5 Km/h. The study revealed the minimum tractor hourly fuel consumption corresponding to operating conditions (harrowing depth and tractor forward speed) requirement was 3.04 L/h harrowing.

Design and Analysis of Crawler Combine Harvester Gearbox

Paper ID- AMA-12-04-2023-12188

For the current combine harvester cutting width, feeding capacity and the whole machine quality are gradually increasing, resulting in gearboxes with glued teeth, brake housing rupture and brake pad burning phenomenon due to insufficient load-bearing capacity. In this paper, a crawler combine harvester gearbox is designed. Firstly, the gearbox is modeled by theoretical design calculations and using SolidWorks 3D drawing software. Then using ANSYS software, stress analysis and modal analysis are performed on the driveline to verify the feasibility of the gearbox. Finally, the gearbox is manufactured and installed on the combine harvester chassis. And designing tests to verify the transmission performance and load carrying capacity of the gearbox. The results show that when the combine harvester is fully loaded (7t) at high speed (2m/s) on a wet and soft mud field, the gearbox output half-shaft is subjected to the maximum torque with a peak torque of 2238.5N-m. And when the harvester is fully loaded and steering in the field in second gear (1.5m/s), the peak torque of the gearbox output half-shaft reaches 2760.2N-m, both of which meet the rated torque value of the gearbox. The matching power of the gearbox designed in this paper reaches 85~95kW, which can meet the continuous and stable operation of combine harvester under heavy load. This study provides a method and reference for the design and development of combine harvester gearboxes.