AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (AMA) (issn: 00845841) is a peer reviewed journal first published online after indexing scopus in 1982. AMA is published by Farm Machinery Industrial Research Corp and Shin-Norinsha Co. AMA publishes every subjects of general engineering and agricultural engineering.
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America (ISSN: 00845841) is a peer-reviewed journal. The journal covers Agricultural and Biological Sciences and all sort of engineering topic. the journal's scopes are in the following fields but not limited to:Azerbaijan Medical Journal Gongcheng Kexue Yu Jishu/Advanced Engineering Science
The effect of Flammulina velutipes soluble polysaccharide (FVSP) on the gel properties of myofibrillar protein (MP) was investigated. Mixed gels were prepared by adding different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) of FVSP to MP. The effects of different FVSP concentrations on MP gel properties were compared by measuring the whiteness values, gel strength, water holding capacity (WHC), Fourier infrared transform spectrum, and thermal denaturation temperature. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were also conducted. Results showed that FVSP addition increased the gel strength and WHC compared with those of the control. FVSP also enhanced gel formation and MP structure stability and produced a 3D gel matrix with high G' and G" values. Maximum gel strength and WHC were obtained at 1.5% FVSP concentration. Microscopy images showed that FVSP filled in the gel matrix and promoted a homogeneous and stable structure. In conclusion, FVSP addition substantially improved the gel properties of MP. This work provides scientific basis for the future application of FVSP in meat products.
This paper presents the results of a cost optimization problem for two stage helical gearboxes with second stage double gearsets. To do that, a simulation experiment was performed. The experiment consists of nine input parameters including the total gearbox ratio, the wheel face width coefficient of the first stage, the coefficient for determining the wheel face width coefficient of the second stage, the allowable contact stress of the first and second stage, the output torque, the cost of gearbox housing, the cost of shaft and the coefficient for determining the gear cost. Also, the experimental results were analyzed by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method with the help of the Minitab 19 software. Moreover, a regression model to find the optimum gear ratio of the first stage was proposed.
The crawler combine harvester fits better in paddy soil farmland because of its much smaller pressure between the ground and track than that of wheeled vehicle. However, the existing unilateral brake steering mode in crawler combine harvester has led to inflexibility and caused many problems. This paper developed a differential steering gearbox (DSG) that could realize any turning radius in the form of dual hydraulic static transmission (HST) combining with a mechanical gearbox. The mathematical relationship of all motion states was deduced. The principle of the DSG was analyzed by using virtual prototype simulation software RecurDyn, as well as dynamic performance under three different working modes of dual HST. The size of the turning radius is only relevant to the steering HST output speed but has nothing to do with the straight HST output speed. Experiment results showed that the error rates of the transmission ratios of the straight (low, middle, and high speed) and steering routes were 0.1%, 0.8%, 0.5%, 0.8% respectively, which well verifies the developed DSG model and principle. This research can provide theoretical basis for optimal design and data support for electronic control of the gearbox.
Water use efficiency (WUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of the spring maize need to be further improved in the semiarid climate type area of Northeast China. We have undertaken a 2-year field test in the 2017- 2018 growing period. The objective was to find out the effects of conventional furrow irrigation (FI), surfaced drip irrigation (DI), and subsurface shallow drip irrigation (SSDI) on the grain yield (GY), WUE & NUE of spring maize. The GY of SSDI and DI was 11.3% and 16.2% higher than that of FI, respectively. The WUE of SSDI and DI was higher than that of FI by 19.4% and 31.2%. And the NUE have respectively raised by 13.6 % and 19.9 %. The performance of SSDI was significantly better than DI. In the soil layer of 0- 60cm, the root length density (RLD) of FI was substantially increased compared with that of DI. However, SSDI and DI were higher than FI below 60 cm soil layer. Drip irrigation, especially SSDI, increased the total nitrogen accumulation in the plant, decreased the 〖NO〗_3^--N contents at the harvest stage, ensured the topsoil‘s nitrogen supply, and thus improved the NUE. In general, the SSDI technique substantially improved the GY, WUE and NUE of spring maize in the semiarid area of Northeast China.
The objective of this paper is to perform the innovative design for the new structures of cam-controlled planet SKD11 cold tool steel is a high-carbon and high-chromium alloy tool steel that is used to make cold work or hot work dressing dies, sides of rollers, screw lines, lines dies, transformer core stamping dies, rolled knives, steel tube forming rollers, special molding rollers, screw heading molds. The hardened SKD11 steel has a high hardness 58-62HRC good wear resistance and good toughness. Hard turning is an important process because all manufacturers are continually seeking ways to manufacture their parts with lower cost, higher quality, rapid setups, lower investment, and smaller tooling inventory while eliminating non-value-added activities. In where Surface roughness is an important parameter determining the accuracy and quality of parts. Analysis of surface roughness is presented by many researchers based on cutting conditions during hard turning. In this paper, analysis of surface roughness of SKD11 steel in hard turning with mixed ceramic inserts is performed based on variables like cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. The feed rate is the most significant parameter affecting the surface roughness in the machining process. Prediction of surface roughness considering the simultaneous effect of cutting parameters is very difficult. Here, a mathematical model is developed based on the simultaneous effect of depth, cutting speed, and feed rate. Moreover, the developed model is validated using different sets of cutting conditions and found in close agreement with experimental results.