Using 70th round of a nationally representative survey of farm households from the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) conducted in 2013. This study examines the determining factors of participation in public extension services and their impact on farm income in rural India. To account for selection bias, the effect of participation in public extension services in terms of farm income in rural India was appraised using propensity score matching (PSM). The findings suggest that factors such as age, education, formal training in agriculture, higher consumption expenditure level, farm size, and exposure to mass media significantly determine participation in extension services. Further, it was also found that public extension services have significantly contributed to an increase in the farm income of the participants. These shreds of evidence provide an important impetus pointer from a policy perspective for the proper household targeting for participation in public extension services in rural India.